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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a reportable hospital metric associated with significant healthcare expenditures. The epidemiology of CDI is pivotal to the implementation of preventative measures.
To portray temporal CDI trends in Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals.
A retrospective analysis of veterans who had stool testing for C. difficile.
VA acute-care hospitals within the continental United States.
Data were mined from the VA’s Corporate Data Warehouse. CDI is reported per 10,000 patient days.
From 2006 to 2016, 472,346 patients had C. difficile testing. Overall, decreases in incidence of total CDI (16.81 to 13.66) and hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated (HO-HCFA) CDI (10.87 to 6.41) were observed. Temporal increases in the incidence of total and HO-HCFA CDI were associated with the increased use of molecular testing (P < .0001). Decreased use of fluoroquinolones (P < .0001), clindamycin (P = .0006), and third-generation cephalosporins (P = .0002) correlated with decreased rates of CDI, but VA mandatory reporting did not influence CDI rates (P = .24). The overall crude 30-day mortality of patients with CDI decreased from 2.17 deaths per 10,000 patient days in 2006 to 1.41 in 2016. The frequency of International Classification of Disease, Ninth/Tenth Revision (ICD-9/10) discharge diagnosis for CDI was 73.3%.
Molecular testing was associated with increased incidence of CDI. Controlling CDI is likely multifactorial. Although the VA initiative to report cases of hospital-acquired CDI was not significant in our model, the advent of stewardship programs throughout the VA and reductions in the use of third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin were significantly associated with reduced rates of CDI.
To describe an outbreak of severe Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections that appeared to be associated with use of a biologic dermal substitute on foot wounds
Retrospective cohort study of cases and similar uninfected patients
Patients attending the podiatry clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center between July 2011 and November 2011
Microbiology laboratory data were reviewed for the calendar year, a case definition was established and use of the biologic dermal substitute was discontinued. Staff were cultured to identify potentially colonized employees. A case–cohort study was designed to investigate risk factors for disease. Emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to identify strain similarity.
In 10 months, 14 cases were identified, and 4 of these patients died. All strains were emm type 28 and were identical according to PFGE. Discontinuation of biologic dermal substitute use halted the outbreak. A prior stroke was more common in the case cohort vs uninfected patient cohorts. The number of patients attending the clinic on 13 probable transmission days was significantly higher than on nontransmission days. We identified 2 patients who were present in the clinic on all but 1 probable transmission day. Surveillance cultures of podiatry clinic staff and cultures of the same lot of retained graft material were negative.
A carrier was not identified, and we believe the outbreak was associated with inter-patient transmission likely due to lapses in infection control techniques. No additional cases have been identified in >3 years following the resumption of dermal substitute use in May 2012.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):306–312