To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Stable isotopes of mammoths and mastodons have the potential to illuminate ecological changes in late Pleistocene landscapes and megafaunal populations as these species approached extinction. The ecological factors at play in this extinction remain unresolved, but isotopes of bone collagen (δ13C, δ15N) and tooth enamel (δ13C, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr) from midwestern North America are leveraged to examine ecological and behavioral changes that occurred during the last interglacial-glacial cycle. Both species had significant C3 contributions to their diets and experienced increasing levels of niche overlap as they approached extinction. A subset of mastodons after the last glacial maximum exhibit low δ15N values that may represent expansion into a novel ecological niche, perhaps densely occupied by other herbivores. Stable isotopes from serial and microsampled enamel show increasing seasonality and decreasing temperatures as mammoths transitioned from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e to glacial conditions (MIS 4, MIS 3, MIS 2). Isotopic variability in enamel suggests mobility patterns and life histories have potentially large impacts on the interpretation of their stable isotope ecology. This study further refines the ecology of midwestern mammoths and mastodons demonstrating increasing seasonality and niche overlap as they responded to landscape changes in the final millennia before extinction.
Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD.
A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance.
At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.39–0.42, p < 0.03–0.04) at the 6-month follow-up.
Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.
The objective of this study was to determine if modification of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) system by the addition of an Orange category, intermediate between the most critically injured (Red) and the non-critical, non-ambulatory injured (Yellow), would reduce over- and under-triage rates in a simulated mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercise.
A computer-simulation exercise of identical presentations of an MCI scenario involving a 2-train collision, with 28 case scenarios, was provided for triaging to two groups: the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY; n = 1,347) using modified START, and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers from the Eagles 2012 EMS conference (Lafayette, Louisiana USA; n = 110) using unmodified START. Percent correct by triage category was calculated for each group. Performance was then compared between the two EMS groups on the five cases where Orange was the correct answer under the modified START system.
Overall, FDNY-EMS providers correctly triaged 91.2% of cases using FDNY-START whereas non-FDNY-Eagles providers correctly triaged 87.1% of cases using unmodified START. In analysis of the five Orange cases (chest pain or dyspnea without obvious trauma), FDNY-EMS performed significantly better using FDNY-START, correctly triaging 86.3% of cases (over-triage 1.5%; under-triage 12.2%), whereas the non-FDNY-Eagles group using unmodified START correctly triaged 81.5% of cases (over-triage 17.3%; under-triage 1.3%), a difference of 4.9% (95% CI, 1.5-8.2).
The FDNY-START system may allow providers to prioritize casualties using an intermediate category (Orange) more properly aligned to meet patient needs, and as such, may reduce the rates of over-triage compared with START. The FDNY-START system decreases the variability in patient sorting while maintaining high field utility without needing computer assistance or extensive retraining. Comparison of triage algorithms at actual MCIs is needed; however, initial feedback is promising, suggesting that FDNY-START can improve triage with minimal additional training and cost.
ArshadFH, WilliamsA, AsaedaG, IsaacsD, KaufmanB, Ben-EliD, GonzalezD, FreeseJP, HillgardnerJ, WeakleyJ, HallCB, WebberMP, PrezantDJ. A Modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment Algorithm from the New York City (USA) Fire Department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):1-6.
Observations, photographs, and video footage of a 337 cm total length female smalltooth sand tiger shark, Odontaspis ferox made at a depth of 348 m on the northern slope of San Ambrosio Island in the Desventuradas Islands (26°19.456′S 79°52.281′W) on 25 February 2013 represent not just the first record of this species in Chilean waters, but the first in the entire south-eastern Pacific Ocean, marking a tremendous range extension of this species. We also summarize the few known occurrences of this species along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America.
The data confirm that there is no basic difference between explosions and natural sources
M. A. Sadovskiy, O. K. Kedrov and I. P. Pasechnik FIZIKA ZEMLI, Istvestiy Akademii Nauk SSSR, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1986
Much of the history of forensic seismology has seen identification criteria introduced with claims that verification is solved, only to be followed by evidence that the claims were over optimistic and that exceptions have been found. Before AWE Blacknest discovered the advantages of deconvolving SP P seismograms, including correcting for attenuation, an analysis procedure was devised to collect statistics on the effectiveness of what then seemed to be the most promising criteria – first motion, spectral ratios and complexity – using initially only the array seismograms. Later the measurement of Ms at stations of the WWSSN was included so that the effectiveness of the mb:Ms criterion could be evaluated. This chapter describes the procedure used for the collection of identification statistics, and then goes on to look in detail at the identification criteria that have proved to be the most useful.
Routine processing and analysis
By 1964 AWE Blacknest had settled on a standard procedure for the analysis of the array seismograms. For each P signal an eight-channel output, such as that shown in Figure 9.1, is produced; the channels are listed in Table 9.1. Channel 2, the DS, is the most important channel, from which onsets and amplitudes are ideally read.
Table L.1 lists seismic source details of the nuclear explosions referred to in the main body of the book or in Appendix M. For many of the explosions, seismograms are shown. Table L.2 lists the details of some conventional explosions, most of which have been used for travel time calibration and some for magnitude–yield and source identification studies. For the CHASE series old military explosives were packed into obsolete cargo ships, towed to deep water sites and scuttled (Kibblewhite and Denham, 1969). It was not originally intended that the explosives would be detonated and the first ship, CHASE I, sank without incident. CHASE II, however, exploded spontaneously on sinking. Several groups including the US Office of Naval Research and the Advanced Research Projects Agency realized that such explosions with known epicentre and origin time could be valuable for seismic and acoustic travel-time studies. Several of the later ships were instrumented to detonate at prescribed depth and location. AWE Blacknest used the P times from several of the CHASE explosions in their studies for the estimation of travel-time tables.
The accidental explosion that sank the Russian nuclear submarine, the Kursk, was the subject of detailed study by AWE Blacknest to try to unravel the sequence of events that led to the destruction of the vessel (see Bowers and Selby (2009), Truscott (2002)).
Table L.3 lists hypocentres, origin times and magnitudes for earthquakes referred to in the book. Seismograms from some of the earthquakes are shown in the main body of the book or in Appendix M.
As all seismograms are filtered versions of ground motion they cannot be interpreted without knowing the filter response. Analysts will know roughly from simple inspection of a seismogram how the ground motion has been filtered when the response is unspecified: LP seismograms show quasi-sinusoidal signals with a period of a few tens of seconds; SP seismograms often show signals as wavelets of ˜ s period and broad-band signals may be pulse-like. The effect is illustrated with synthetic seismograms in Figure 4.1 for amplitude responses shown in Figure 4.2. For quantitative interpretation and analysis, the response must be known.
The original way of specifying the response of a seismograph was from its natural frequency and damping. For modern systems which have additional filters amore systematic and convenient way of specifying the response is required. Following Bogert (1961), AWE Blacknest adopted the use of what are called the poles and zeros of the system from which the amplitude and phase response as a function of frequency, and hence the impulse response, can be generated. Almost all modern seismological systems are specified in this way.
Because many observatories are in regions of high man-made (cultural) noise, SP systems are usually bandpass filters rather than high pass. The WWSSN SP system shown in Figure 4.2 is an example. Such narrow-band systems are of little value except for observations of onset times and station magnitudes.
1.1 An observed P signal shows displacements on the vertical and east–west components only; there is no displacement on the north–south component. If the first motion on the vertical-component is up and that on the east–west component is towards the west in what direction is the source?
1.2 Figure N.1 shows the vertical (up–down) and horizontal (east–west) components of a dispersed Rayleigh wave. By plotting on an x–y graph the vertical and horizontal displacements (assuming motion to the east is positive) at the times when the vertical component is a peak, a trough or a zero crossing, sketch the motion of a point on the free surface (the particle orbit) as the wave passes the point of observation. Repeat the exercise assuming motion to the west is positive. Which of the two sketches shows retrograde elliptical motion? Hence, what is the direction to the source?
1.3 If the speed of propagation of the 60 s period component of the Rayleigh wave (FigureN.2) is 3.89 km s−1 and that of the 20 s period component is 2.95 km s−1, estimate the distance of the recording station from the source. The true distance is one of the following: 1000 km, 3000 km, 5000 km or 7000 km. Which one?
Chapter 6 describes detailed analyses of P seismograms of a small selection of earthquakes and explosions, and for some of these seismic disturbances synthetic seismograms are shown that are attempts to match the observed. For the earthquakes, the match between synthetic and observed is generally satisfactory but for the explosions the match is often poor. These analyses cannot show anything of the variety of P seismograms from explosions and particularly earthquakes. The seismograms shown in this appendix, which are principally array recordings, are chosen to demonstrate something of this variety. The arrays referred to in the appendix are, unless otherwise stated, the UK-designed arrays, EKA, GBA, WRA and YKA. The epicentres of all the earthquakes and explosions referred to in the book are shown in Figures M.1 and M.2.
There is no such thing as a typical seismogram and it is difficult to search in a systematic way for examples of seismograms to illustrate properties predicted from theoretical models. Only by chance is it usually possible to find, for example, PP seismograms that are clearly Hilbert transforms of the radiated source pulse, or seismograms with truly emergent onsets, or seismograms showing strong Doppler effects. Chance has played a large part in the choice of earthquake seismograms for inclusion here.
Of the earthquakes chosen for inclusion, half are the subject of earlier studies. The remainder are principally further examples of seismograms showing Doppler effects or Hilbert transforms.