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We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the National Audit of Psychosis to identify factors associated with use of community treatment orders (CTOs) and assess the quality of care that people on CTOs receive.
Between 1.1 and 20.2% of patients in each trust were being treated on a CTO. Male gender, younger age, greater use of in-patient services, coexisting substance misuse and problems with cognition predicted use of CTOs. Patients on CTOs were more likely to be screened for physical health, have a current care plan, be given contact details for crisis support, and be offered cognitive–behavioural therapy.
CTOs appear to be used as a framework for delivering higher-quality care to people with more complex needs. High levels of variation in the use of CTOs indicate a need for better evidence about the effects of this approach to patient care.
The ROSAT X-ray satellite mission and its X-ray telescope (XRT) are described by Trümper (1984). The characteristics of the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on ROSAT and its potential for studies of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) are discussed by Harris, Sumner, and Walker (1989, this volume). The energy range covered by the WFC is 0.06 keV to 0.21 keV (60 Å to 200 Å), whilst the XRT covers the higher energy range from 0.2 keV to 2 keV. Observations performed to date in this field have given rise to conflicting evidence on the location and nature of the 106 K gas, which is presumed to be the origin of the observed emission (see references in Harris, Sumner, and Walker, 1989, this volume).
The ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite, due to be launched in early 1990, will carry two separate and complementary grazing-incidence telescopes with co-aligned axes. The German X-ray telescope (XRT) will cover the soft X-ray region in the range 0.15–2 keV (6–80 Å), while the U.K. XUV Wide Field Camera (WFC) will extend coverage to beyond 200 Å. The WFC is a joint project of Leicester and Birmingham Universities, the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, and the authors' institutes. The primary objective of ROSAT is to perform an all-sky survey over a period of six months. This will be followed by a guest-observer, “pointed” phase. We briefly discuss the sensitivity of the WFC to the soft X-ray/XUV background (SXRB) and the problems and techniques associated with distinguishing the astronomical background from other sources of background.
Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTωIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTωIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term changes, for instance, in the asteroid's spin and orbit, can be assessed using ground based observations. We find that such a mission can indeed provide valuable constraints on mitigation relevant parameters. Furthermore, the here proposed kinetic impact scenarios can be implemented within the next two decades without threatening Earth's safety.
Hematologic malignancies make up about 9% of the new cancer cases in the USA in 2013. Of the new hematologic cancer cases, approximately 53% were lymphoma, 32% were leukemia, and 15% were myeloma. The management of pain in hematologic cancers presents a constellation of problems that are distinctly different from those associated with solid tumors. We will review four cases of patients who presented with pain associated with hematologic cancer that illustrate the unique complexity and breadth of the problems to be addressed. We will then discuss considerations that should be taken that affect the assessment of risks and the selection of analgesic treatment, and the monitoring of clinical response.
Beaches and dunes of the open coast form one of the globe’s longest ecological interfaces, linking the oceans with the land. These systems are of great importance to society as prime sites for housing and recreation, buffers against storms, and providers of fisheries and mineral resources. By contrast, their unique ecological attributes and biodiversity are much less recognized. In this chapter, we provide a synthesis of the key ecological features and functions of beaches and dunes, outline the main elements of their faunal biodiversity, examine human threats and their biological consequences, and sketch some salient issues in management to achieve conservation of these unique ecosystems. It is apparent that the range of ecosystem goods and services is broad, but nutrient cycling, water filtration, and the provision of habitat and prey for a diverse range of animals are often the key ecological traits. Contrary to common perceptions, beaches and dunes contain a diverse and unique set of species, many of which are found nowhere else. In addition to the complement of highly adapted invertebrates, many wildlife species (e.g. birds, turtles, fishes) are dependent on beaches and dunes for nesting and feeding, and they use these habitats extensively. Human pressures on sandy shorelines and their biodiversity are numerous. Coastal squeeze is, however, the most pervasive, trapping beaches and their biota between the pressures of development from the terrestrial side and the consequences of climate change from the marine side. Beaches are also naturally malleable habitats whose interlinkages, including the exchange of organisms, with the abutting dunes and surf zones are essential to their functioning. Unfortunately, human actions intended to arrest the dynamics of beach habitats, such as seawalls and dune stabilizations, run counter to these natural dynamics and generally produce negative environmental outcomes. These present a set of formidable management challenges when the primary goal is to conserve intact ecosystems and biodiversity, calling for more systematic approaches in conservation design and implementation for beach and dune ecosystems.
The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health.
We surveyed Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) to assess infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. A diverse patient population is served by RMH. Most sites have locally written IPC guidelines, and consultation resources vary, increasing the potential for inconsistent IPC practices. RMH would benefit from a standardized IPC guideline.
Following its meeting in May, 2010, the IAU Executive Committee requested that a Working Group on NEOs within Div. III be re-activated and carry out the following activities:
a)investigate and formulate requirements for an international ground- and/or space-based NEO survey, to detect, track and characterize (optical/IR, radar) 90% of all NEOs with D >40 m and to establish as such a permanent International NEO Early Warning System; to submit to the President, Vice-President and OC of Division III by March 31, 2011, a progress report and by March 31, 2012, a final report on this matter, to be forwarded to the President and General Secretary of the IAU;
b)assemble a SOC in order to write and submit to the IAU Assistant General Secretary before December 1, 2010, a proposal for a GA IAU Symposium or a GA Special Session, to be held during the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, August 20-31, 2012 in Beijing, on theoretical and observational aspects of NEO research in general, and on requirements and other aspects of a permanent International NEO Early Warning System in particular;
c)prepare and submit to the IAU General Secretary by January 31, 2012, a Resolution for consideration by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly in Beijing, August 2012, asking for international action and support to establish an International NEO Early Warning System; such a Resolution, if accepted by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, to be addressed to the IAU National Members, to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS), and to the International Council for Science (ICSU).
Thermally labile involatile inorganic complexes and biomolecules have been laser desorbed from silver doped emulsions without significant fragmentation. The silver doped emulsions are saturated with the molecule of interest and then mounted in the source chamber of a skimmed molecular beam apparatus. A pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is used to desorb the molecules. The desorbed molecules are entrained in a pulsed supersonic expansion of argon, and are thereby cooled rotationally and vibrationally. A pulsed tunable dye laser is used to ionize the desorbed molecules (either resonantly or non-resonantly) between the acceleration grids of a Wiley-McLaren configuration time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Mass-resolved detection of the ions created from the desorbed species reveals that the desorption process causes almost no fragmentation for all the species studied (various aromatic amino acids and inorganic coordination compounds such as the [Ru(2,2’bipyridyl)3] moiety). While other techniques are successful for introducing relatively involatile materials into mass spectrometers, they often lead to substantial fragmentation of the molecular species of interest. Laser desorption combined with laser ionization can minimize fragmentation during both the vaporization process and the ionization step. Furthermore, a specific merit of our sample handling technique involving silver doped emulsions is that the number density of desorbed species is found to remain sufficiently stable on a shot-to-shot basis so as to permit the recording of wavelength scanned resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra. The combination of laser desorption with resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy has thus provided for the first time a means of recording electronic spectra for a range of vibrationally and rotationally cooled involatile materials.
In this paper, the technique of microscope-spectrophotometry, used to nondestructively characterize the microstructure of ion beam synthesized iron-disilicide layers, is described. The results obtained agree extremely well, in terms of layer thickness and interfacial roughness, with those from Rutherford backscattering. The results also show that it is possible to interpret the measured spectral reflectance data in terms of: 1) defect annealing; 2) iron redistribution; and 3) phase transformations from the β to the α phase.
Cements and concretes are often considered as components of barriers for the containment of radioactive waste. The performance of such materials as mainly physical barriers to the transport of dissolved radionuclides depends on the mass transfer characteristics of the material. In particular the diffusion and sorption behaviour of the radionuclides and the water permeability are important. These parameters also influence how the chemistry of the concrete is imposed on the repository. In addition, the transport of gas through concrete controls the way in which gases escape from the repository.
Diffusion and gas transport have been measured in a variety of cementitious materials, covering both structural concretes and cementitious backfills; all possible repository construction materials. Measurements have been made using aqueous iodide, strontium and caesium ions and tritiated water as diffusants. The results show that the diffusion of tritiated water is more rapid than that of other species, whilst the transport of strontium and caesium is hindered by sorption; particularly in materials containing blast furnace slag. The transport of gas in these materials has been found to be very sensitive to the degree of water saturation and is extremely low in fully saturated structural concretes. Cementitious backfills have, nevertheless, been identified that have appreciable gas transport even when almost water saturated.
The consequences of the results for the performance of cementitious barriers are discussed.
We report the growth and characterization of a new dilute nitride, InNAsSb/InAs, by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Optimizing growth conditions for nitrogen incorporation has resulted in high-quality InNAsSb epilayers without any structural degradation, as confirmed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Optical properties were investigated by temperature dependent and excitation power dependent photoluminescence. We obtained mid-infrared luminescence around 4 mm at low temperature, which reveals strong carrier localization behavior at low temperature induced by nitrogen interacted with antimony. The band alignment of InNAsSb/InAs can be type-I and instead of conventional type-II, InAsSb/InAs, and a conduction band offset, Ec,of ∼102meV was obtained.