Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised humans and severe pulmonary damage in patients with cystic fibrosis. Imbalanced fatty acid incorporation in membranes, including increased arachidonic acid and decreased DHA concentrations, is known to play a critical role in chronic inflammation associated with bacterial infection. Other lipids, such as EPA and alkylglycerols, are also known to play a role in inflammation, particularly by stimulating the immune system, decreasing inflammation and inhibiting bacterial growth. In this context, the goal of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary DHA/EPA, in a 2:1 ratio, and alkylglycerols, as natural compounds extracted from oils of rays and chimeras, respectively, on the inflammatory reaction induced by P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection in mice. To this end, mice were fed with a control diet or isolipidic, isoenergetic diets prepared with oils enriched in DHA/EPA (2:1) or alkylglycerols for 5 weeks before the induction of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection by endotracheal instillation. In our model, DHA/EPA (2:1) significantly improved the survival of mice after infection, which was associated with the acceleration of bacterial clearance and the resolution of inflammation leading to the improvement of pulmonary injuries. By contrast, alkylglycerols did not affect the outcomes of P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggest that supplementation with ray oil enriched in DHA/EPA (2:1) can be considered as a preventive treatment for patients at risk for P. aeruginosa infection.