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The Palaeolithic–Neolithic transition in East Asia is characterised by the transformation of mobile hunter-gatherer groups into sedentary communities. The existence of ‘ice-age’ pottery in the Japanese archipelago, however, is inconsistent with claims that directly link climatic warming with sedentism and the development of ceramics. Here, the authors reconsider the chronology and palaeoenvironment of the Maedakochi site in Tokyo. New AMS dating and environmental data suggest that intensified inland fishing in cold environments, immediately prior to the Late Glacial warm period, created conditions conducive to sedentism and the development of subsistence-related pottery.
This study aimed to explore the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and postpartum depression among perinatal subjects in the Miyako region of Iwate, an area damaged by earthquakes and tsunamis.
We retrospectively compared the percentages of women with scores ≥9 on the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among 3 groups of women who gave birth prior to the disaster (before-disaster group: n=141), within 3 months after the disaster (within-3-months group: n=70), and 4-6 months after the disaster (4-6-months group: n=89) at the Iwate Prefectural Miyako Hospital. The risk factors for EPDS scores ≥9 were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Compared with the before-disaster group, a significantly greater number of women in the within-3-months group had EPDS scores ≥9 at hospital discharge (31.4% versus 9.9%, P<.0001), whereas women in the 4-6-months group did not (10.1% versus 9.9%, P=.96). In both the after-disaster groups, the destruction of their home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-9.26) and dissatisfaction with their living conditions (AOR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.20-7.59) were significantly associated with EPDS scores ≥9.
An increase in postpartum depression was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake among perinatal women. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:307-312)
To control an input energy for a load, an impedance control with a gap distance of an electron beam diode was studied using an intense pulsed-power generator. The output current of the pulsed-power generator as a function of the gap distance of electron beam diode was measured. It indicated that the behaviors of the experimentally obtained peak current and the theoretically obtained space-charge limited current were found to decrease with an increase in the gap distance. The input energy for the load was estimated from the output current, which decreased with an increase in the gap distance. It also revealed the space-charge limited current suppresses the input energy for the load with a decade.
It is necessary to assess the impact of nitrate salts and their reduction products (e.g. NH3(aq)/NH4+) contained in low-level radioactive waste generated from nuclear reprocessing process for the safety assessment of geological disposal of the waste. In the present study, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was investigated in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+. Under various NH3(aq)/NH4+ concentration, pH and ionic strength conditions, distribution coefficient (Kd) of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was determined by a batch experiment. For Ni system, the Kd values showed no significant dependence on initial NH4+ concentration ([NH4+]ini < 1 M) in neutral pH region, which agreed with the prediction from thermodynamic data. For Pd system, the Kd values decreased with an increase of [NH4+]ini, suggesting the formation of stable ammine complexes (Pd(NH3)m2+ (m: 1 – 4)). The obtained Kd values for Ni and Pd were analyzed using a surface complexation model. By taking complexes predicted by thermodynamic data into account, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+ were well explained.
Gene-for-gene (GFG) systems are genotype-specific, antagonistic interactions between hosts and parasites, widely observed in plants and their microbial parasites (Burdon 1987). Detailed studies on crop plant and fungus pathogen systems have revealed that when breeders introduce resistant hosts, a rapid evolution of parasite virulence occurs that overcomes the resistance. This process suggests a continuous coevolutionary change in both host and parasite. The spread of a resistant genotype capable of escaping a currently prevalent parasite will be challenged by a new parasite strain that harbors a virulent gene, capable of overcoming that resistance. Similarly, a host with a new resistant gene, possibly at another locus, would be able to restore resistance against the same parasite. Besides its importance in agriculture and biological control, GFG interactions play a key role in models of host-parasite coevolution. These models reveal a robust tendency toward protected polymorphisms and sustained cycles of host and parasite genotypes, which, in turn, favor higher rates of mutation, recombination, and sexual reproduction (e.g., Hamilton 1980; Hamilton et al. 1990; Frank 1993b; Haraguchi and Sasaki 1997).
From the perspective of virulence management, one consequence of the modeling approach described in this chapter is of potential practical importance: the results presented here reveal a wide parameter range in which polymorphism of host resistance can prevent the spread of any virulent strain of parasite and maintain a disease-free host population.
The X-ray emission from hollow atoms produced by collisions
of multiply charged ions accelerated by a short pulse laser
with a solid or foil is studied theoretically. The possibility
of obtaining a high conversion efficiency X-ray source in an
ultrafast atomic process (∼1 fs) is demonstrated using the
multistep-capture-and-loss (MSCL) model. Such an X-ray source
has a clear advantage for the spectral range around a few
kiloelectron volts over the conventional Kα
X-ray source. Namely, the number of X-ray photons increases as the
laser energy becomes larger and could reach 3 × 1011
photons for a laser energy of about 10 J.
A relativistically intense short laser pulse can
produce a large flux of X rays through the interaction
with electrons that are driven by its intense electromagnetic
fields. Apart from X rays from the high-Z matter
irradiation by an intense laser, two main processes, Larmor
and Bremsstrahlung radiation, are among the most significant
mechanisms for X-ray emission from short-pulse laser irradiation
on low-Z matter in the regime of relativistic
intensities. We evaluate the power, energy spectrum, brilliance,
polarization, and time structure of these X rays. We suggest
a few methods that significantly enhance the power of Larmor
X rays. Because of the peakedness in the energy spectrum
of Larmor X rays, Larmor X rays have important applications.
In the present study we have developed the agar-fill method for the measurement of gastrointestinal-tract capacity (GTC) to replace the in vitro water-fill method. This would estimate GTC without using complex equipment and techniques, and can be applied to the measurement of GTC for small laboratory animals. We attempted to confirm the efficiency of the agar-fill method by investigating the relationship between dietary neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content and GTC. The digestion trials were carried out using the Syrian hamster (Mesocricefus auretus). The trials were conducted using both sexes, two age-groups and three levels of dietary NDF with a cross-classified design. The size of each gastrointestinal organ was determined as tissue weight(TW)and GTC. The DM intake, digestible DM intake, DM digestibility, NDF digestibfity, aciddetergent fibre(ADF) digestibfity and digesta transit time were also measured. GTC increased with increasing NDF content of the diets. TW responded similarly to increasing NDF content, but the response was smaller than that of GTC. DM digestibility decreased with increasing NDF content of the diet. The digestible DM intake did not decrease with increasing NDF because DM intake increased with NDF content. Digesta transit time was not shorter of the high-NDF-diet group but DM intake increased with increasing NDF content. NDF digestibility did not differ significantly between low- and medium-NDF diets. ADF digestibility was low in the low-NDF-diet group.The digestion characteristics were highly correlated with TW and GTC, except for TW of small intestine. These correlations were higher with GTC than with TW. The results of the present study confirm previous findings suggesting that the agar-fill method is a useful means of estimating GTC for small laboratory animals.
PLANET-B is an ISAS spacecraft which will investigate the upper atmosphere and the surroundings of Mars between 1999 and 2001 To clarify the presence and characteristics of the Martian dust ring/torus, an impact ionization dust detector will be on board PLANET-B The detector (PLANET B Mars Dust Counter), which is an improved version of the Munich Dust Counters of HITEN and BREMSAT, will weigh only 630g with an aperture area 140cm2. The detectable mass range will be between 10-16g and more than 10-6g and the velocity range will be from 1km/s to more than 70km/s. Since PLANET-B executes retrograde elliptic orbits close to the zodiacal plane, our detector can investigate the spatial distribution of prograde dust particles from Phobos and Deimos with relative encounter velocity as large as or higher than 1km/s. PLANET-B MDC shall also measure the dust environment around the Earth and interplanetary and possibly interstellar dust particles.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment. Scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Modified Mini-Mental State Test, and the Hasegawa Dementia Screening Scale can also be estimated from subsets of the CASI items. Pilot testing conducted in Japan and in the United States has demonstrated its cross-cultural applicability and its usefulness in screening for dementia, in monitoring disease progression, and in providing profiles of cognitive impairment. Typical administration time is 15 to 20 minutes. Record form, manual, videotape of test administration, and quizzes to qualify potential users on the administration and scoring of the CASI are available upon request.
We report how vacuum annealing and dry oxidation affect the photoluminescence (PL) properties of porous Si. Vacuum annealing weakens the intensity of as-prepared porous Si, whereas, oxidation using dry oxygen at 5 Torr increases the intensity remarkably above 800 °c. Blue shifts as large as 100 nm are also observed for temperatures between 800 °C and 1000 °c. The photoluminescence decay patterns of both as-prepared and dry-oxidized porous Si excited by a nitrogen laser pulse are not exponential, but are fitted well by two exponential decays with lifetimes ranging from a few nanoseconds to over 100 nanoseconds. Further, those decay patterns do not change with changing excitation power by more than three orders of magnitude. These studies suggest that (l) hydrogen termination (with some fluorine termination) on the porous Si surface is not always necessary to get photoluminescence, (2) low surface defect densities are essential to increase the photoluminescence intensity, and (3) the radiative recombination path is not a direct interband transition, but, due to quantum size effects, it may go through some luminescence centers lying In the widened band gap.
A GaAs/InAs heterostructure was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A 2 μm thick GaAs layer was grown on an (100) InAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The sample was then angle-lapped so that the interface region is exposed on the bevel. At the close vicinity of the interface, GaAs longitudinal-optic (LO) frequency was lower by about 3 cm−1 than at the asgrown surface. The LO shift decreased with increasing distance from the interface. The spectral width did not strongly depend on the position, and thus the shift would be mainly due to strain. A similar experiment was carried out for an InAs/GaAs structure, and a broad peak which was tentatively assigned to the plasmon-LO coupled mode was observed for the InAs layer.
We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of nonemergent treatment for esophageal varices commonly used in Japan (endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, nonshunting direct interruption procedure, and selective shunt). We assessed the cost per survivor from the perspective of the Japanese government and other payors. Epidemiologic and economic data from published Japanese literature and from Japanese hospital-cost information were applied in decision analysis. While sclerotherapy is the most cost-effective treatment, the popular surgical procedures save the most lives, thus raising difficult ethical issues regarding trade-offs of cost and quality.
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