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Manufacturing is the engine of economic growth and development (Kaldor 1966, 309–319; Szirmai 2013, 53–75; Yulek 2018), which critically supports development. The close association between manufacturing and growth is well documented. The university has a high potential to support industrial development. Research indicates a positive relationship between universities and growth (Valero and Van Reenen 2019, 53–67). Yet, whether the university functions as an efficient organization in converting public and private resources granted to it into satisfactory outcomes for society remains an important question.
The university trains its students for the labor market. However, it is no longer the only social institution providing educational services, and university enrollment rates are weakening in some countries. Many competing formal and informal education services are provided by, among other things, on-the-job-learning (or, learning-by-doing) at industrial and non-industrial firms, banks, professional and vocational training institutions, research institutions or public administrations—all of which provide educational services covering the same or similar sets of knowledge. Recently, the exponential growth in university diplomas similar to the high-school diploma explosion in the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and 1980s in Turkey has degraded the value of university diploma. Online university diplomas have also been adding to diploma explosion. It is another reason why university enrollment rates fall in the USA (Nadvorny 2019) and slowing down in Europe (Teichler and Bürger 2015).
The university cannot be indifferent to how it can serve society better in education and development. The university ecosystem has been changing slowly from the so-called 1GU of the medieval times, to the 2GU and then to the 3GU (Wissema 2009; Lukovics and Zuti 2017). The way teaching and research are conducted in the universities and propagated to society is still evolving. Nevertheless, most world universities today are still 2GUs, while even the general 3GU framework does not adequately address the ever-changing dynamics of development in an age of rapid transformations.
This chapter postulates learning in the industrial university in response to the emerging challenges and posits a new sub-type—the IndU—to respond to specific new challenges in the education and research functions of the university.
Proso millet is a short-season summer annual grass that is well adapted to the central Great Plains. Proso millet is commonly planted as a summer crop when winter wheat stands are lost due to adverse conditions. Sulfonylurea herbicides labeled for use in winter wheat prohibit planting proso millet for intervals up to 10 mo following application. A series of greenhouse and field studies determined proso millet tolerance to CGA-152005, metsulfuron, and triasulfuron soil residue. In the greenhouse, proso millet was not affected by soil-applied CGA-152005 at doses up to 160 g ai/ha, while metsulfuron and triasulfuron doses of 4 and 15 g ai/ha, respectively, inhibited proso millet biomass accumulation. In the field, metsulfuron and triasulfuron caused early season stunting and chlorosis at doses two to four times those recommended; however, grain yields were not affected. Organic matter and clay content were highly correlated with proso millet growth response to the herbicides under greenhouse conditions, but in the field, soil pH may have influenced herbicide bioavailability.
Seeds from five suspected acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor–resistant wild oat biotypes (R1 to R5) were collected in wheat and lentil fields in the Pacific Northwest. Based on whole plant dose–response experiments, the five resistant biotypes were 2 to 24 times more resistant to the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides (fenoxaprop, diclofop, and quizalofop) compared with the susceptible biotype. However, none of the resistant biotypes were resistant to the cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides, sethoxydim and clethodim. R2 was the only biotype resistant to tralkoxydim and pinoxaden, a phenylpyrazolin herbicide and an ACCase inhibitor. The R2 biotype was 35 and 16 times more resistant to tralkoxydim and pinoxaden, respectively, when compared with the susceptible biotype. The levels of resistance and cross-resistance patterns varied among biotypes indicating either more than one mechanism of resistance or different resistance mutations in these wild oat biotypes. The CHD herbicides, sethoxydim and clethodim, could be used to control these resistant biotypes. Except for the R2 biotype, pinoxaden could be used to control the resistant wild oat biotypes. The resistance patterns of these wild oat biotypes are an indication of the difficulty in predicting cross-resistance among the ACCase inhibitor herbicides.
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