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To examine the effects of chlorpromazine for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (2008) for randomised control trials or double blind trials implying randomisation, comparing chlorpromazine with another drug or placebo for people thought to be acutely aggressive due to psychotic illness. For selected studies we extracted data and calculated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effects model.
118 studies were identified, two met inclusion criteria. One compared oral chlorpromazine with oral thioridazine and one intramuscular chlorpromazine with intramuscular haloperidol.Those allocated chlorpromazine did not remain on medication (RR 2.00 CI 0.94 to 4.26), or stay in hospital (RR 1.87 CI 0.70 to 4.95) longer than those allocated thioridazine. No differences were found for adverse effects.Those allocated chlorpromazine were no more likely to have one (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26), 2-4 (RR 0.90 CI 0.52 to 1.55) or 5+ (RR 0.75 CI 0.20 to 2.79) injections than those allocated haloperidol. Two patients allocated chlorpromazine had, serious hypotension (RR 5.00 CI 0.26 to 96.13), one developed status epilepticus (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26), no one allocated haloperidol had these effects
Overall the quality of evidence is limited and dated. Chlorpromazine was just as effective as similar medicines, but it may be associated with more side effects. Where better, more evaluated drugs are available it may be best to avoid using chlorpromazine. Carefully designed clinical trials are urgently needed.
Building upon Brass’ previous research on Jebel Moya, which included a comprehensive reanalysis of the pottery from Wellcome's 1911–14 expeditions curated at the British Museum, new research activities by the University College London–University of Khartoum–NCAM Expedition to the Southern Gezira project have included locating and examining for the first time the Late Mesolithic sherds from Jebel Moya curated at the National Museum in Khartoum. Representative samples from the sites of Shaqadud Midden and Shaqadud S21 at the British Museum have also been re-examined. The aims of these activities were threefold: to test the reliability and cohesiveness of and patterning in the Shaqadud collection through the expanded application of attribute analysis, to determine if Caneva's observations of décor patterns on Jebel Moya's Late Mesolithic sherds could be replicated and to obtain better visibility into the nature of its pottery assemblage from this time, and to use the resulting data to test the viability of the central Sudan being a fulcrum of cultural interchanges during the late sixth and early fifth millennium BC. We conclude that there was a piecemeal establishment of networks along which there was diffusion of ideas and animals, and perhaps low numbers of people, into the central and south-central Sudan.
New excavations at the Jebel Moya cemetery in Sudan reveal extensive evidence for Meroitic-era occupation, providing valuable data on contemporaneous diet, migration, exchange and population composition in sub-Saharan Africa.