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To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values.
Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature sources from CEE.
Micronutrients studied were folate, iodine, Fe, vitamin B12 and Zn (for intake and status) and Ca, Cu, Se, vitamin C and vitamin D (for intake). Intake data were based on validated dietary assessment methods; mean intakes were compared with average nutrient requirements set by the Nordic countries or the US Institute of Medicine. Nutritional status was assessed using the status biomarkers and cut-off levels recommended primarily by the WHO.
For all population groups in CEE, the mean intake and mean/median status levels were compared between countries and regions: CEE, Scandinavia, Western Europe and Mediterranean.
Mean micronutrient intakes of adults in the CEE region were in the same range as those from other European regions, with exception of Ca (lower in CEE). CEE children and adolescents had poorer iodine status, and intakes of Ca, folate and vitamin D were below the reference values.
CEE countries are lacking comparable studies on micronutrient intake/status across all age ranges, especially in children. Available evidence showed no differences in micronutrient intake/status in CEE populations in comparison with other European regions, except for Ca intake in adults and iodine and Fe status in children. The identified knowledge gaps urge further research on micronutrient intake/status of CEE populations to make a basis for evidence-based nutrition policy.
To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes.
A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, until January 2012, using a standardized strategy developed in the EURRECA network. Relevant articles were screened and sorted based on title and abstract, then based on full text, and finally included if they met inclusion criteria. A total of sixteen articles were included in the review.
Articles covered four continents: America (n 4), Europe (n 8), Africa (n 1) and Asia (n 3).
Population groups included healthy infants, children and adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women.
From the total number of 5815 papers retrieved from the initial search, only sixteen were eligible according to the inclusion criteria: five for infants, five for children and adolescents, and six for pregnant and lactating women.
Only one main conclusion could be extracted from this scarce number of references: a positive association between vitamin B12 intake and serum vitamin B12 in the infant group. Other associations were not reported in the eligible papers or the results were not provided in a consistent manner. The low number of papers that could be included in our systematic review is probably due to the attention that is currently given to research on vitamin B12 in elderly people. Our observations in the current systematic review justify the idea of performing well-designed studies on vitamin B12 in young populations.
To signal key issues for harmonising approaches for establishing micronutrient recommendations by explaining observed variation in recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn for adults and elderly people.
We explored differences in recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn for adults between nine reports on micronutrient recommendations. Approaches used for setting recommendations were compared as well as eminence-based decisions regarding the selection of health indicators indicating adequacy of intakes and the consulted evidence base.
In nearly all reports, recommendations were based on the average nutrient requirement. Variation in recommended folate intakes (200–400 μg/d) was related to differences in the consulted evidence base, whereas variation in vitamin B12 recommendations (1·4–3·0 μg/d) was due to the selection of different CV (10–20 %) and health indicators (maintenance of haematological status or basal losses). Variation in recommended Fe intakes (men 8–10 mg/d, premenopausal women 14·8–19·6 mg/d, postmenopausal women 7·5–10·0 mg/d) was explained by different assumed reference weights and bioavailability factors (10–18 %). Variation in Zn recommendations (men 7–14 mg/d, women 4·9–9·0 mg/d) was also explained by different bioavailability factors (24–48 %) as well as differences in the consulted evidence base.
For the harmonisation of approaches for setting recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn across European countries, standardised methods are needed to (i) select health indicators and define adequate biomarker concentrations, (ii) make assumptions about inter-individual variation in requirements, (iii) derive bioavailability factors and (iv) collate, select, interpret and integrate evidence on requirements.
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