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The benefits of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and positive psychology therapy (PPT) in patients with cardiovascular disease are still not well defined. We assessed the efficacy of CBT and PPT on psychological outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
Randomized controlled trials evaluating CBT or PPT in CAD patients published until May 2018 were systematically analyzed. Primary outcomes were depression, stress, anxiety, anger, happiness, and vital satisfaction. Random effects meta-analyses using the inverse variance method were performed. Effects were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean differences (MD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs); risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool.
Nineteen trials were included (n = 1956); sixteen evaluated CBT (n = 1732), and three PPT (n = 224). Compared with control groups, depressive symptoms (13 trials; SMD −0.80; 95% CI −1.33 to −0.26), and anxiety (11 trials; SMD −1.26; 95% CI −2.11 to −0.41) improved after the PI, and depression (6 trials; SMD −2.08; 95% CI −3.22 to −0.94), anxiety (5 trials; SMD −1.33; 95% CI −2.38 to −0.29), and stress (3 trials; SMD −3.72; 95% CI −5.91 to −1.52) improved at the end of follow-up. Vital satisfaction was significantly increased at follow-up (MD 1.30, 0.27, 2.33). Non-significant effects on secondary outcomes were found. Subgroup analyses were consistent with overall analyses.
CBT and PPT improve several psychological outcomes in CAD patients. Depression and anxiety improved immediately after the intervention while stress and vital satisfaction improve in the mid-term. Future research should assess the individual role of CBT and PPT in CAD populations.
An estimated 20–30% of patients with primary Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) develop recurrent CDI (rCDI) within 2 weeks of completion of therapy. While the actual mechanism of recurrence remains unknown, a variety of risk factors have been suggested and studied. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate current evidence on the risk factors for rCDI.
We searched MEDLINE and 5 other databases for subject headings and text related to rCDI. All studies investigating risk factors of rCDI in a multivariate model were eligible. Information on study design, patient population, and assessed risk factors were collected. Data were combined using a random-effects model and pooled relative risk ratios (RRs) were calculated.
A total of 33 studies (n=18,530) met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent independent risk factors associated with rCDI were age≥65 years (risk ratio [RR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–2.14; P=.0005), additional antibiotics during follow-up (RR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.52–2.05; P<.00001), use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.13–2.21; P=.008), and renal insufficiency (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.14–2.23; P=.007). The risk was also greater in patients previously on fluoroquinolones (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28–1.57; P<.00001).
Multiple risk factors are associated with the development of rCDI. Identification of modifiable risk factors and judicious use of antibiotics and PPI can play an important role in the prevention of rCDI.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1–9
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