The spectrally and temporally resolved luminescence of three-dimensional (3D) InGaN/GaN microrods and planar light emitting diode (LED) structures is studied for different energy densities of fs-laser excitation pulses and for different sample temperatures. We find an energy density threshold above which irreversible modifications of the structures take place, which leads to a decrease of the luminescence intensity and a change in the intensity ratio of the GaN to the InGaN luminescence. Due to the quantum confined Stark effect, a biexponential decay characteristic is found in the planar structure, while the 3D microrods with nonpolar InGaN quantum wells on their sidewalls show a monoexponential decay of the InGaN luminescence. For both structures, the decay of the luminescence becomes faster with increasing energy density per pulse. However, the luminescence of the planar LED decays faster with increasing temperature, while the opposite trend is found for the 3D sample.