To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Lessons from past crises of demoracy are drawn. If the past is a guide, we should be looking at economic conditions: income, its growth, and its distribution, consider the democratic history of a particular country, and pay attention to the intensity of divisions in society.
The main question is whether the observed political patterns can be attributed to economic causes or to some cultural transformations not reducible to economics. A vast plethora of empirical studies is summarized.
Economic, political, and institutional features of democracies that survived until 2008 and of those that collapsed are compared. The vulnerability of democracies to different types of crises is examined.
Potential causes of the current crisis are catalogued and examined. They may include globalization, technological change, breakdown of class compromise, immigration, authorization of prejudices by some insurgent politicians, or something else?
The conclusions are drawn by identifying the range of possibilities contained in the current crisis. Positive and negative economic trends are documented. Populism is shown to be endemic in representative institutions. Deep social and cultural roots of the crisis are emphasized.
Democracy can be eroded by governments that use only constitutional means to monopolize power and gain discretion in policy making. Opposition can be effective only if citizens are forward looking, anticipating cumulative consequences.