Polymers possessing antimicrobial activity have been used for self sterilization surfaces as well as agents for treating contaminated water. Cationic polymers based on quaternary ammonium or guanidine groups have shown high inherent antimicrobial activity where the activity is related to the disruption of the microorganism cell wall. A range of antimicrobial nanoparticles possessing active quaternary ammonium groups with one of the alkyl is a an octyl chain have been synthesized. These nanoparticles were incorporated in dental restoration compositions to form self sterile composites. Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles with N-octyl dimethyl residues, demonstrated high antibacterial effect.