We examined whether synchrony and timing of breeding influenced magnitude and timing of sexual segregation in sympatric western grey kangaroos Macropus fuliginosus and red kangaroos M. rufus, at Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, in south-eastern Australia. These species vary in the synchrony and timing of their mating activity: western grey kangaroos mate during a relatively synchronous period, predominantly during spring, while red kangaroos mate throughout the year. Surveys were conducted during autumn and spring 2000 to examine seasonal patterns of mating activity, group composition, spatial distribution, and habitat selection of adults of both species. Habitat selection was also examined by analysing data from culls conducted from 1998 to 2002. Mating activity occurred synchronously in western grey kangaroos, thus, like in many ungulate species, there was a time of peak segregation, during autumn, when females were in lactational anoestrus, and a time of peak aggregation, during the period of peak mating activity in spring. In red kangaroos, mating activity occurred during both seasons, but showed a slight peak during autumn. Consequently, segregation was weaker than in western grey kangaroos but occurred through-out the year, with a slight peak during spring. The degree of social and spatial segregation in western grey and red kangaroos was comparable to that in ungulates, while habitat segregation was considerably lower than is typically seen in ungulates. These results indicate that breeding phenology is a major factor involved in sexual segregation, and highlight the importance of directing attention at the general conditions underlying this phenomenon.