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The COVID-19 has emerged as a global pandemic for public health due to large scale outbreak, therefore there is an urgent need to detect the infected cases quickly and isolate them in order to suppress the further spread of the disease. This study tries to identify a suitable pool testing method and algorithm for COVID-19.
This study tries to derive a general equation for the number of tests required for a pooled sample to detect every infected individual in the specific pool. The gain in pool testing over normal procedure is quantified by the percentage of tests required compared to individual testing.
The percentage of tests required by the pool testing strategy varies according to the different splitting procedures, the size of the pooled sample, and the probability of an individual being infected in the population. If the probability of infection is 0.05, then for a pool size of 32, only 14 tests, are sufficient to detect every infected individual.
The number of tests required to detect infected individuals by the pooling method is much lower than individual testing. This may help us in increasing our testing capacity for COVID-19 by testing a large number of individuals in less time with limited resources.
Studies in the literature on two-dimensional, fully developed, turbulent wall jets on flat surfaces, have invariably reckoned on either the nozzle initial conditions or the asymptotic conditions far downstream, as scaling parameters for the streamwise variations of length and velocity scales. These choices, however, do not square with the notion of self-similarity, which is essentially a ‘local’ concept. We first demonstrate that the streamwise variations of velocity and length scales in wall jets show remarkable scaling with local parameters, i.e. there appear to be no imposed length and velocity scales. Next, it is shown that the mean velocity profile data suggest the existence of two distinct layers – the wall (inner) layer and the full-free jet (outer) layer. Each of these layers scales on the appropriate length and velocity scales and this scaling is observed to be universal, i.e. independent of the local friction Reynolds number. Analysis shows that the overlap of these universal scalings leads to a Reynolds-number-dependent power-law velocity variation in the overlap layer. It is observed that the mean-velocity overlap layer corresponds well to the momentum-balance mesolayer and there appears to be no evidence for an inertial overlap; only the meso-overlap is observed. Introduction of an intermediate variable absorbs the Reynolds-number dependence of the length scale in the overlap layer and this leads to a universal power-law overlap profile for mean velocity in terms of the intermediate variable.
Bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials using solution-processed methods is ideally suited for use in fabrication of large-area optoelectronic devices. Tailorable visible and near-infrared absorption in shaped nanostructured noble metals is strongly influenced by localized plasmon resonance effects. Obtaining sharp and selective absorption with solution-processed methods is a challenge and requires suitable control on the growth kinetics, which ultimately results in appropriate size and morphology of the final product. In this work, a photo-assisted multigenerational growth process for synthesis of silver nanotriangle ink with narrow linewidth absorbance is developed. This technique combines photochemical and seed-mediated growth approaches. The resulting ink exhibits a sharp absorption at 700 nm with full width at half maximum of ∼170 nm, verified by absorption as well as dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements. Numerical modeling using finite-difference time-domain calculations yields a close match with observed absorption and is used to examine electric field distribution and enhancement factor resonating at 720 nm. The synthesis technique is potentially useable for production of highly selective absorbers in solution phase.
Evidence on the impact of the quality of prenatal care on childhood mortality is limited in developing countries, including India. Therefore, using nationally representative data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (2015–16), this study examined the impact of the quality of prenatal care on neonatal and infant mortality in India using a multivariable binary logistic regression model. The effect of the essential components of prenatal care services on neonatal and infant mortality were also investigated. The results indicate that improvement in the quality of prenatal care is associated with a decrease in neonatal (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97) and infant (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.96) mortality in India. Tetanus toxoid vaccination, consumption of iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy and having been weighed during pregnancy were statistically associated with a lower risk of neonatal and infant mortality. Educating women on pregnancy complications was also associated with a lower risk of neonatal mortality. No effect of blood pressure examination, blood test and examination of the abdomen during pregnancy were found on either of the two indicators of childhood mortality. Although the coverage of prenatal care has increased dramatically in India, the quality of prenatal care is still an area of concern. There is therefore a need to ensure high-quality prenatal care in India.
The PRogramme for Improving Mental health care (PRIME) designed, implemented and evaluated a comprehensive mental healthcare plan (MHCP) for Sehore district, Madhya Pradesh, India.
To provide quantitative measures of outputs related to implementation processes, describe the role of contextual factors that facilitated and impeded implementation processes, and discuss what has been learned from the MHCP implementation.
A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The quantitative strand consisted of process data on mental health indicators whereas the qualitative strand consisted of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key stakeholders involved in PRIME implementation.
The implementation of the MHCP in Sehore district in Madhya Pradesh, India, demonstrated that it is feasible to establish structures (for example Mann-Kaksha) and operationalise processes to integrate mental health services in a ‘real-world’ low-resource primary care setting. The key lessons can be summarised as: (a) clear ‘process maps’ of clinical interventions and implementation steps are helpful in monitoring/tracking the progress; (b) implementation support from an external team, in addition to training of service providers, is essential to provide clinical supervision and address the implementation barriers; (c) the enabling packages of the MHCP play a crucial role in strengthening the health system and improving the context/settings for implementation; and (d) engagement with key community stakeholders and incentives for community health workers are necessary to deliver services at the community-platform level.
The PRIME implementation model could be used to scale-up mental health services across India and similar low-resource settings.
(i) To assess diagnostic accuracy of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for screening thinness and severe thinness in Indian adolescent girls aged 10–14 and 15–19 years compared with BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) <−2 and <−3 as the gold standard and (ii) to identify appropriate MUAC cut-offs for screening thinness and severe thinness in Indian girls aged 10–14 and 15–19 years.
Cross-sectional, conducted October 2016–April 2017.
Four tribal blocks of two eastern India states, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
Girls (n 4628) aged 10–19 years. Measurements included height, weight and MUAC to calculate BAZ. Standard diagnostic accuracy tests, receiver–operating characteristic curves and Youden index helped arrive at MUAC cut-offs at BAZ < −2 and <−3, as gold standard.
Mean MUAC and BMI correlation was positive (0·78, P = 0·001 and
r2 = 0·61). Among 10–14 years, MUAC cut-off corresponding to BAZ < −2 and BAZ < −3 was ≤19·4 and ≤18·9 cm. Among 15–19 years, corresponding values were ≤21·6 and ≤20·7 cm. For both BAZ < −2 and BAZ < −3, specificity was higher in 15–19 v. 10–14 years. State-wise variations existed. MUAC cut-offs ranged from 17·7 cm (10 years) to 22·5 cm (19 years) for BAZ < −2, and from 17·0 cm (10 years) to 21·5 cm (19 years) for BAZ < −3. Single-age area under the curve range was 0·82–0·97.
Study provides a case for use of year-wise and sex-wise context-specific MUAC-cut-offs for screening thinness/severe thinness in adolescents, rather than one MUAC cut-off across 10–19 years, depending on purpose and logistic constraints.
Grewia tenax locally known as ‘Gangerun’, is an important multipurpose underutilized shrub and potentially threaten species of the Thar Desert of India. Owing to its importance, naturally available germplasm was collected and evaluated for its sustainable utilization in future. Data on individual mother plant, seed characters and soil profile were investigated. Habitat occurrence of G. tenax was found in patches with dominant association of Euphorbia caducifolia across the four districts of western Rajasthan. Individual plant on unprotected area portrayed far lower average height (0.95 m) and canopy area (1.75 m2) than protected area (2.63 m and 13.89 m2) signifying level of browsing pressure on this species in Jaisalmer. Soil samples belonging to Pali region have high organic carbon and low electrical conductivity content than Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. The statistical analysis of seed characters revealed the presence of high coefficient of variation (%) in 100-seed weight (HSW; 27.36) followed by seed length (SL; 8.06) and least in seed breadth (SB; 5.85). The range and mean values of HSW, SL, SB and length:breadth ratio (LBR) were (2.02–7.00 and 3.34 g), (4.36–6.15 and 5.36 mm), (3.73–4.68 and 4.25 mm) and (1.11–1.44 and 1.27), respectively. Significantly positive correlation was observed between SL and LBR (0.73) followed by HSW and SL (0.66). Along with these findings, its economic importance, utilization and conservation are detailed in this paper as to hasten further research on its various aspects for its successful conservation and utilization.
Using data from India’s National Family Health Survey, 2005–06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother’s characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child’s sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child’s sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.
Child undernutrition remains a major child health and developmental issue in low- and middle-income countries. The concentration (clustering) of underweight children among siblings at the family level is known to exist in India. This study examined the extent and covariates of clustering of underweight children at the sibling and family level in Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of northern India. Clustering of underweight (low weight-for-age) children was assessed using data on 7533 under-five children from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2005–06, analysed using binary logistic and binomial regression models. Related bio-demographic, socioeconomic and health care variables were used as covariates in the models. The odds of being underweight for the index child were about two times higher (OR=2.34, p<0.001) if any of the siblings within the household was malnourished or underweight. A longer birth interval increased the odds of a child being underweight. The odds of underweight were significantly lower (OR=0.69, p<0.001) for children born to normal-weight mothers compared with those born to underweight mothers. Similarly, the odds of underweight were significantly lower (OR=0.49, p=0.01) for children born to educated mothers (high school and above) compared with those born to illiterate mothers. The results of the binomial regression model suggested that the deviations between observed and expected number of children were positive (3.09, 3.78 and 2.71) for 1, 2 and 2+ underweight children within the households of underweight women, indicating the concentration of underweight children among underweight/malnourished mothers. Underweight children were found to be clustered among underweight mothers with multiple underweight siblings. The findings suggest that policy interventions need to focus on underweight mothers with multiple underweight children.
Antioxidant therapies to control oxidative damage have already attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Extensive studies on phytochemicals in cell culture system and animal models have provided a wealth of information on the mechanism by which such nutraceuticals show their beneficial effect. Nutraceuticals include plant-derived factors (phytochemicals) and factors derived from animal sources as well as from microbial sources. The activities of nutraceuticals are broad and include antioxidation, modulation of enzyme activity and modification of natural hormonal activity (agonist or antagonist) to act as a precursor for one or more beneficial molecules. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that cause cell damage. Antioxidant consumption during radiotherapy and its effects are still controversial. Some studies suggest that antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be beneficial and some, harmful. Wheat grass is rich in superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme. Radiotherapy causes tumour cell kill via activation of reactive oxygen species, specifically by the hydroxyl radical and needs the reactive species for effective tumour control. Wheat grass which is rich in free radical scavengers can interfere with reactive oxygen species generated by radiation for tumour cell kill and can be detrimental to the therapy per se.
To hypothesise if the antioxidant properties of wheat grass could influence tumour activity, the effects of radiation therapy on tumour cells can be nullified when wheat grass is taken during radiotherapy.
This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005–06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010–11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.
Examining waiting time to birth among newlywed couples is likely to provide insights into the desire for spacing births among newlywed husbands and wives. Data from the Indian National Family Health Survey of 2005–06 are used to examine the desired waiting time (DWT) to birth among newlywed couples. The dependent variable is spousal concordance on desired waiting times. Overall 65% of couples have concordant desired waiting times. Among discordant couples, wives were more likely to want to wait longer than their husbands. Couples from richer wealth quintiles were more likely than couples from the poorest quintile to have concordant desired waiting times. Muslims were less likely than Hindus to have concordant desires. There is a need for spacing contraceptive methods among newlyweds in India. This may have implications for the Indian Family Planning Programme, which to date has largely focused on sterilization. Programmes need to include newlywed husbands to promote use of spacing methods.
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to estimate sequence dependent
force required to stretch single stranded DNA (ssDNA) homo oligonucleotides.
Simulations suggest that polyA and polyC oligonucleotides exhibit similar
force profiles and corresponding elongation. Among single stranded DNA
strands polyT is the most flexible and needs the most force to unwind from
an equilibrium folded structure. In contrast, polyG had a very small
recoverable deformation prior to a non-linear stretching. Our results
indicate that mechanical properties of ssDNA chains are directly related to
A soluble polyaniline was synthesized through emulsion polymerization and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), viscosity analysis, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) determination. The electrical conductivity is found to reach 1000 S/cm with specific post doping treatments. Multiple printing processes, such as inkjet printing, screen printing and aerosol jet printing etc, make it feasible to print a variety of sensor patterns. The electromechanical response of these sensors was used to measure strain/stress or damage of composite structures under various load conditions expected to be experienced by aircraft. These unique conductive polymer sensors provide a feasible, near real time monitoring system for composites without adding significant additional weight to the structure.
The present paper examines the association between the type of household and maternal health in India using data from the National Family Health Survey 1998–99. The indicators of maternal health used in the analysis are contraceptive use, visit to obtain antenatal care in the first trimester, safe delivery and nutritional status of women measured in terms of body mass index (BMI). Binary and multinomial logistic regressions are used to establish associations. The type of household is coded into three categories, viz. nuclear household, joint household with in-laws and joint household without in-laws. The other independent variables used in the analysis are age, children ever born, work status, education of women, religion, caste, standard of living, exposure to mass media, women’s autonomy and presence of others at the time of interview. The findings clearly suggest that type of household is significantly associated with the utilization of the above-mentioned services that positively affect maternal health. Women in nuclear households are more likely to utilize these services compared with women in joint households. However, an association between type of household and BMI was not found.
Cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized by means of a hot metal reduction reaction with cobalt chloride as precursor material. The size of cobalt nanoparticles was controlled by the choice of surfactant and the molar ratio of surfactant-to-reagent. Surfactants with larger alkane side chains yielded a smaller average nanoparticle size (diameter) and tighter size distribution, as these chains provided steric hindrance to the growth of the nanoparticles after initial nucleation. For each alkane side chain, a high molar ratio of surfactant-to-reagent (HSR) rendered nanoparticles with smaller particle size, while a low molar ratio of surfactant-to-reagent (LSR) produced larger nanoparticles. Measurements on transmission electron microscope images of cobalt particles synthesized with tri-octylphosphine revealed an average particle size of 6.9 nm (HSR) and 9.1 nm (LSR), while particles synthesized with tri-butylphosphine had a mean diameter of 12.5 nm (HSR) and 14.9 nm (LSR). X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that particles had metastable ε-cobalt structure. Room temperature magnetization measurements showed ferromagnetic behavior with highly square M-H loops indicative of single domain particles with coercive fields in the range of 400–500 Oe.
Data from the District Level Household Survey (2002) conducted by the Reproductive and Child Health Project in India has been used to examine the impact of utilization of antenatal care services on improvement in maternal health in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh, India. Multilevel analysis shows that after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic factors, utilization of antenatal care services may lead to the utilization of other maternal health related services such as institutional delivery, delivery assisted by trained professionals, seeking advice for pregnancy complications, and seeking advice for post-delivery complications. There is strong clustering of utilization of services within the primary sampling units (i.e. villages) and districts.
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