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To study the magnitude and predictors of underweight, incident underweight and recovery from underweight among rural Indian adults.
Prospective cohort study. Each participant’s BMI was measured in 2008 and 2012 and categorized as underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2), normal (BMI=18·5–22·9 kg/m2) or overweight/obese (BMI ≥23·0 kg/m2). Incident underweight was defined as a transition from normal weight or overweight/obese in 2008 to underweight in 2012, and recovery from underweight as a transition from underweight in 2008 to normal weight in 2012. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed.
The Birbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System, West Bengal, India.
Predominantly rural individuals (n 6732) aged ≥18 years enrolled in 2008 were followed up in 2012.
In 2008, the prevalence of underweight was 46·5 %. From 2008 to 2012, 25·8 % of underweight persons transitioned to normal BMI, 12·9 % of normal-weight persons became underweight and 0·1 % of overweight/obese persons became underweight. Multivariable models reveal that people aged 25–49 years, educated and wealthier people, and non-smokers had lower odds of underweight in 2008 and lower odds of incident underweight. Odds of recovery from underweight were lower among people aged ≥36 years and higher among educated (Grade 6 or higher) individuals.
The current study highlights a high incidence of underweight and important risk factors and modifiable predictors of underweight in rural India, which may inform the design of local nutrition interventions.
To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population.
Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation.
During 2010–2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective.
Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54–0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36–2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of tobacco use.
Thin films of aluminum oxide were deposited on silicon nitride thin films using trimethylaluminum and oxygen at 0.5 Torr and 300 °C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of these films showed no aluminum silicate phase at the film-substrate interface. The O/Al ratio in the deposited film was found to be higher than that in stoichiometric Al2O3 indicating the presence of excess oxygen. FTIR spectroscopy and XPS of the annealed samples did not show any formation of silicon oxide, oxynitride or silicate at the aluminum oxide/silicon nitride interface. In contrast to aluminum oxide on clean silicon substrates, using ultrathin silicon nitride as a barrier layer could prevent excess oxygen migration towards the Si substrate and formation of any interfacial layers.
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