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Early flow cytometry studies revealed T cell activation in major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is characterised by activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immunoregulatory system (CIRS), including deficits in T regulatory (Treg) cells. This study examines the number of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) receptor-bearing T/B lymphocytes in MDD, and the effects of in vitro cannabidiol (CBD) administration on CB1/CB2-bearing immunocytes. Using flow cytometry, we determined the percentage of CD20+CB2+, CD3+CB2+, CD4+CB2+, CD8+CB2+ and FoxP3+CB1+ cells in 19 healthy controls and 29 MDD patients in 5 conditions: baseline, stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 with or without 0.1 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, or 10.0 µg/mL CBD. CB2+ was significantly higher in CD20+ than CD3+ and CD4+ and CD 8+ cells. Stimulation with anti-CD3/CD8 increases the number of CB2-bearing CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as CB1-bearing FoxP3+ cells. There was an inverse association between the number of reduced CD4+ CB2+ and IRS profiles, including M1 macrophage, T helper-(Th)-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. MDD is characterised by lowered basal FoxP3+ CB1+% and higher CD20+ CB2+%. 33.2% of the variance in the depression phenome (including severity of depression, anxiety and current suicidal behaviours) is explained by CD20+ CB2+ % (positively) and CD3+ CB2+% (inversely). All five immune cell populations were significantly increased by 10 µg/mL of CBD administration. Reductions in FoxP3+ CB1+% and CD3+ /CD4+ CB2+% contribute to deficits in immune homoeostasis in MDD, while increased CD20+CB2+% may contribute to the pathophysiology of MDD by activating T-independent humoral immunity.
Long coronavirus disease 2019 (LC) is a chronic sequel of acute COVID-19. The exact pathophysiology of the affective, chronic fatigue and physiosomatic symptoms (labelled as “physio-affective phenome”) of LC has remained elusive.
The current study aims to delineate the effects of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body temperature during the acute phase on the physio-affective phenome of LC.
We recruited 120 LC patients and 36 controls. For all participants, we assessed the lowest SpO2 and peak body temperature during acute COVID-19, and the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMD/HAMA) and Fibro Fatigue (FF) scales 3–4 months later.
Lowered SpO2 and increased body temperature during the acute phase and female sex predict 60.7% of the variance in the physio-affective phenome of LC. Using unsupervised learning techniques, we were able to delineate a new endophenotype class, which comprises around 26.7% of the LC patients and is characterised by very low SpO2 and very high body temperature, and depression, anxiety, chronic fatigue, and autonomic and gastro-intestinal symptoms scores. Single latent vectors could be extracted from both biomarkers, depression, anxiety and FF symptoms or from both biomarkers, insomnia, chronic fatigue, gastro-intestinal and autonomic symptoms.
The newly constructed endophenotype class and pathway phenotypes indicate that the physio-affective phenome of LC is at least in part the consequence of the pathophysiology of acute COVID-19, namely the combined effects of lowered SpO2, increased body temperature and the associated immune-inflammatory processes and lung lesions.
To examine whether negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, and mannerism (PHEM symptoms), formal thought disorders (FTD) and psychomotor retardation (PMR) are interrelated phenomena in major neurocognitive psychosis (MNP) or deficit schizophrenia and whether those domains belong to an underlying latent vector reflecting general psychopathology.
In this study, we recruited 120 patients with MNP or deficit schizophrenia and 54 healthy subjects and measured the above-mentioned symptom domains.
In MNP, there were significant associations between negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR. A single latent trait, which is essentially unidimensional, underlies these key domains of schizophrenia and MNP and additionally shows excellent internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and predictive relevance. Confirmatory Tedrad Analysis indicates that this latent vector fits a reflective model. The lack of discriminant validity shows that positive (and PHEM or psychotic) and negative symptoms greatly overlap and probably measure the same latent construct. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) shows that MNP (diagnosis based on negative symptoms) is better modeled using PHEM symptoms, FTD, and PMR than negative symptoms.
In stable phase MNP, which is a restricted sample of the schizophrenia population, negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR belong to one underlying latent vector reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). The bi-dimensional concept of “positive” and “negative” symptoms cannot be validated and, therefore, future research in stable phase schizophrenia should consider that the latent phenomenon OSOS as well as its reflective manifestations are the key factors of schizophrenia phenomenology.
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