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Facemask use may promote face touching. We recorded patients with possible COVID-19 awaiting evaluation in an ambulatory clinic. Patients with a facemask touched their face 11.41 times on average and ranged up to 80 times. Mask use should be accompanied by hand hygiene and reminders not to touch one’s face.
Peripheral gene expression of several molecular pathways has been studied in major depressive disorder (MDD) with promising results. We sought to investigate some of these genes in a treatment-free Latino sample of Mexican descent.
Material and Methods:
The sample consisted of 50 MDD treatment-free cases and 50 sex and age-matched controls. Gene expression of candidate genes of neuroplasticity (BDNF, p11, and VGF), inflammation (IL1A, IL1B, IL4, IL6, IL7, IL8, IL10, MIF, and TNFA), the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (TCF7L2, APC, and GSK3B), and mTOR, was compared in cases and controls. RNA was obtained from blood samples. We used bivariate analyses to compare subjects versus control mean mRNA quantification of target genes and lineal regression modelling to test for effects of age and body mass index on gene expression.
Most subjects were female (66%) with a mean age of 26.7 (SD 7.9) years. Only GSK3B was differentially expressed between cases and controls at a statistically significant level (p = 0.048). TCF7L-2 showed the highest number of correlations with MDD-related traits, yet these were modest in size.
GSK3B encodes a moderator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. It has a role in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, depression, and other psychiatric phenotypes. We found that adding population diversity has the potential to elicit distinct peripheral gene expression markers in MDD and MDD-related traits. However, our results should only be considered as hypothesis-generating research that merits further replication in larger cohorts of similar ancestry.
To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT).
Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin–Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression.
Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru.
Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively.
At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively.
We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.
A new computerized instrument (the Multimedia Behavioral Avoidance Test, or MBAT) for blood-injury-injection phobia (BII) assessment is presented. Analogous stimuli such as images and videos can also elicit anxiety responses; thus, they can be used for the assessment of phobia. The MBAT was applied to participants via computer, and subjective anxiety responses and time latency were recorded. The MBAT was composed of 30 original images and 30 videos related to blood, injury and injections. The MBAT was compared with other pencil-and-paper questionnaires for BII phobia, and heart rate was also measured with a pulsioximeter. The participants included 160 students and professionals (34.5% males, 65.6% females; mean 28.6 years old). The results showed a high reliability for internal consistency in images and videos (α = .98 both), with a single factor that groups all the items. In addition, the MBAT had high concurrent validity (r = .78 to .85) with the different anxiety scales compared. The MBAT diagnosed 12 participants with possible BII phobia. It is a useful instrument in the assessment of this kind of phobia because it is easier and quicker than pencil-and-paper questionnaires, it uses more objective measurements, and it is useful in planning subsequent exposure with images and videos.
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the muscle mass to visceral fat (MVF) ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population of college students in Colombia and to propose cut-off points of this index for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 1464 young adults recruited from the FUPRECOL (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Jóvenes y Adultos Colombianos) study were categorised into four groups based on their MVF ratio. Muscle mass and visceral fat level of the participants were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cardiometabolic risk factors including lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were assessed. The prevalence of moderate to severe obesity, hypertension and the MetS was higher in subjects in quartile (Q)1 (lower MVF ratio) (P <0·001). ANCOVA revealed that the subjects in Q1 had higher cardiometabolic disturbances, including altered anthropometry, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after adjusting for age and sex compared with young adults in higher MVF ratio quartiles (P <0·001). Muscular mass and physical activity levels were significantly lower in subjects with a lower MVF ratio (P <0·001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that in men the best MVF ratio cut-off point for detecting the MetS was 18·0 (AUC 0·83, sensitivity 78 % and specificity 77 %) and for women, the MVF ratio cut-off point was 13·7 (AUC 0·85, sensitivity 76 % and specificity 87 %). A lower MVF ratio is associated with a higher risk cardiometabolic profile in early adulthood, supporting that the MVF ratio could be used as a complementary screening tool that may help clinicians identify young adults at high cardiometabolic risk.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
The great variety of n-3 long-chain PUFA sources raises the question of the most adequate for using as a DHA supplement during pregnancy. Placental and fetal availability of different DHA sources remains unclear. We investigated DHA availability in maternal lipoproteins, placenta and fetal tissues in pregnant sows fed DHA as phospholipid (PL) or TAG to identify the best DHA source during this period. Pregnant Iberian sows were fed diets containing 0·8 % DHA of total fatty acids as PL from egg yolk or TAG from algae oil during the last third of gestation (40 d). Maternal tissues, placentas and fetal tissues were obtained at delivery and DHA quantified by GC. Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain Containing 2a (MFSD2a) carrier expression was analysed in both placenta and fetal brain by Western blotting. Sows fed the DHA–PL diet showed higher DHA incorporation in plasma LDL but not in plasma total lipids. No differences were found in DHA content between groups in maternal liver, adipose tissue or brain. Placental tissue incorporated more DHA in both total lipids and PL fraction in sows fed DHA–PL. However, this did not lead to an enhanced DHA accretion either in fetal plasma, fetal liver or fetal brain. MFSD2a expression was similar between both experimental groups. Maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy in sow either as PL or TAG produces similar DHA accretion in fetal tissues but not in placenta. Both fat sources are equally available for fetal brain.
Obesity may be considered a social stigma. In addition, people with obesity are frequently aware of stigma directed at others who have a similar weight and come to think stigmatized thoughts about themselves. Our study focused specifically on how blatant and subtle discrimination and weight self-stigma are related to depression and anxiety in people with obesity. The sample comprised 170 participants from the Clinical Nutrition Unit of the “Hospital de Valme” (Seville, Spain). The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Perceived Discrimination Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. It was found that blatant and subtle discrimination and weight self-stigma were positively related to depression (.31, .38, and .45 respectively) and anxiety (.30, .36, and .49 respectively; all ps < .01). The path analysis conducted showed that there was a mediational effect of weight self-stigma between blatant (β = .36) and subtle discrimination (β = .40) and depression (β = .24) and anxiety (β = .49; all ps < .01). According to these results, it can be said that weight self-stigma was a full mediator in the model found because the relationships between the independent and the dependent variables were non-significant. Finally, results are discussed in the frame of the obesity stigma literature, and some clinical implications of the results of the study are suggested.
In this work polypyrrole (PPy) and its respective composite with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PPy-MWCNT) was obtained by the chemical polymerization of the monomer pyrrole (PPy) in aqueous solution by the dropwise addition of a solution of ammonium persulfate (PSA). The obtained PPy as well as its composite (PPy-MWCNT) were used to prepare two self-assembled films (SA) by the immersion of ITO blades (Inidium Tin Oxide) into PPy and PPy-MWCNT dispersions with alternated immersions into Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) dispersion, thus resulting in a bilayer. The SA films were produced with ten bilayers (alternated layers of PPy or its composite). The obtained films were characterized by Fourrier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible analysis, voltammetric analyses (square wave and cyclic voltammetry) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SA films were evaluated to determine the chlorothalonil pesticide which is commonly used as anti-fouling agent in marine environments. The SWV results showed a reduction peak at around -0.8 to 1.2 V (according to pH). It was also observed a synergic effect of the composite film (PPy-MWCNT/PSS) to determine the chlorothalonil by increase of the peak currents.
The synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles by chemical reduction was carried out. Fe nanoparticles were obtained using Fe (III) Chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3•6H2O) as precursor and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, subsequently, a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added to the reaction. The synthesis methodology employed in this case, is a modification of chemical reduction method. Through this procedure has been possible simplify the synthesis route used to obtain bimetallic systems such as Fe3O4-Ag. Particles with semi-spherical morphology were observed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-is) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques were employed for the structural characterization of Fe3O4-Ag nanostructures. Some models presented describe and prove the formation of the Fe3O4-Ag alloy type structures.
A selection of 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3-ones (1–19) and 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles substituted at positions 1 (20–24) or 2 (25–39) from our in-house compound library were screened in vitro against the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 41% of the studied molecules (16/39) achieved a significant activity of more than 85% growth inhibition at the highest concentration assayed (100 µg mL−1). Among these compounds, 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole derivatives 23, 24, 25 and 27 inhibited parasite growth by more than 50% at 10 µg mL−1. In addition, the first two compounds (23, 24) still showed remarkable activity at the lowest dose tested (1 µg mL−1), inhibiting parasite growth by nearly 40%. Their specific activity towards the parasite was corroborated by the determination of their non-specific cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The four mentioned compounds exhibited non-cytotoxic profiles at all of the concentrations assayed, showing a fair antiparasitic selectivity index (SI > 7·5). In silico studies were performed to predict pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug-score using Molinspiration and OSIRIS computational tools. The current in vitro results supported by the virtual screening suggest 2-substituted and, especially, 1-substituted 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles as promising starting scaffolds for further development of novel chemical compounds with the main aim of promoting highly selective trichomonacidal lead-like drugs with adequate pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
Understanding seed biology and onset of germination requirements is a key point for designing effective weed management programs. Gibberellins (GAs) are known to play a role in onset of germination of several species. Onset of germination often requires an increase in de novo GA content or an increase in sensitivity to GAs. Reduced germination of seeds incubated in solutions containing compounds that inhibit GA synthesis provide evidence that GAs are required to trigger germination. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE), a GA synthesis inhibitor, is frequently used as a plant growth regulator in crop production. However, to the best of our knowledge, TE has not been used to study the requirement of GAs in onset of germination. Germination studies were conducted using seeds of artichoke thistle and common teasel under a range of TE concentrations (0 to 500 μM TE), a combined solution of 125 μM TE + 100 μM GA3 for artichoke, and 250 μM TE + 100 μM GA3 for common teasel. Germination tests were conducted at 20/10 C (12-h thermoperiod) in darkness for artichoke and at constant 15 C with 12 h of light for common teasel. Germination of artichoke in 125 μM TE was reduced to 47% when compared with the check (95%), but the combined TE + GA3 solution maintained germination at 84%. Germination of common teasel in 250 μM TE was reduced to 10% when compared with the check (91%), and the combined TE + GA3 solution increased germination to 63%. These results demonstrate the utility of TE to study the role of GAs in onset of germination. This novel use of TE is a valuable option to study germination requirements of weed species, and therefore contributes to the design of weed management programs.