The diversity of the family Trichocomaceae, which includes the major anamorph genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, was studied in the Katandra Nature Reserve, Central Coast, NSW, Australia. Soil, living leaves, leaf litter and detritus were examined by both direct and dilution plating techniques. Fungi were isolated on dichloran Rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar, and dichloran 18% glycerol agar, media suitable for cultivation of many species within this family. Species of Trichocomaceae were isolated from all sites and all substrates examined. A high diversity was found, with more than 50 known species identified, and an equal number of undescribed species detected. More species of Penicillium were recovered than other genera, with Aspergillus species the next most common. Most of the species recovered were anamorphs, though 16 known and unknown ascosporic species were also isolated from heated and unheated soil. Soils, leaf litter, a scat from a native herbivore and leaves of living native plants yielded higher diversity than insects, worms or introduced plants. More species belonging to the family were isolated from soil in dry sclerophyll forest than in rainforest. Conversely, native rainforest plants harboured more diversity than the dry sclerophyll forest plants examined.