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Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
‘Riawunna’ is an Aboriginal word meaning ‘a place of learning’ for Aboriginal people, from entry level to tertiary studies, at the University of Tasmania (UTAS) and operates on Hobart, Launceston and Burnie campuses. The Riawunna Centre was established to encourage Aboriginal people to aspire to higher levels of education, and to support them to be successful in their chosen course of study. One strategy developed to support the participation, retention and success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is the Murina program. During the four year period between 2010 and 2013 every student at UTAS who graduated from the Murina program and chosen to enrol in undergraduate studies has been successful in completing their courses. One of the tools used to achieve this result is the strong use of narrative and images in our teaching. This whole-person approach to teaching resonates culturally with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, but is also applicable to any student of any culture, especially those who come to university tentatively and with low expectations of what they can achieve.
An anonymous survey of 1143 employees in 17 nursing facilities assessed knowledge of, attitudes about, self-perceived compliance with, and barriers to implementing the 2002 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hand hygiene guidelines. Overall, employees reported positive attitudes toward the guidelines but differed with regard to knowledge, compliance, and perceived barriers. These findings provide guidance for practice improvement programs in long-term care settings.
The possibility of an extraterrestrial origin of biomolecule building blocks has been a subject of intense discussions for many years. The detection of amino acids in meteorites opens the possibility of a delivery of biomolecules synthesized in the interstellar medium or star-forming regions to the primeval Earth. Whereas it can be doubted if more complex species like amino acids can survive the strong UV radiation in the early Solar System, this does not necessary hold for more primitive precursor molecules like nitriles. These compounds can also be synthesized very efficiently in methane-nitrogen dominated atmospheres like the one present on Titan and the early ages of Earth. This Contribution focuses on the formation and degradation processes of nitriles in interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres and on their possible role in the generation of biomolecules.
CENTRAL SYSTEM: THEORY, METHODS, AND MEASURES
Martha Ann Bell, Associate Professor of Psychology Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Christy D. Wolfe, Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences University of Louisville
The field of developmental psychophysiology provides the methodology for examination of age-related changes in the functioning of the brain. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient, non-invasive, and relatively inexpensive method for studying brain development in infants and children and for relating brain development to changes in cognitive behaviors. Utilizing EEG allows for examination of these developmental changes without dramatic interference with normal ongoing behaviors. All of these characteristics make the EEG one of the more favorable methods for investigating brain-behavior relations with young populations (Casey & de Haan, 2002; Taylor & Baldeweg, 2002).
The EEG discussed in this chapter is sometimes called “quantitative EEG” and is used for basic research on brain activity during cognition or emotion and for basic research on brain maturation. Typically, quantitative EEGs used for basic research are digital records that are converted from the time domain to the frequency domain by means of spectral analysis, yielding spectral power at specific frequencies, or by means of phase coherence analysis, yielding the degree to which the EEG signals at two distinct scalp locations are in phase at a specific frequency. This quantitative methodology differs from the traditional use of the EEG in the clinical setting to localize seizures or tumors. It also differs from event-related potentials, or ERPs, which are brain electrical responses that are time locked to a specific set of stimuli. ERP methodology and research is reviewed in Chapters 2, 3, and 4 of this volume.
Hepcidin plays a major role in iron homeostasis, but understanding its role has been hampered by the absence of analytical methods for quantification in blood. A commercial ELISA has been developed for serum prohepcidin, a hepcidin precursor, and there is interest in its potential use in the clinical and research arena. We investigated the association between serum prohepcidin concentration and iron absorption in healthy men, and its relationship with iron status in men carrying HFE mutations, hereditary haemochromatosis patients, and pregnant women. Iron absorption was determined in thirty healthy men (fifteen wild-type, fifteen C282Y heterozygote) using the stable isotope red cell incorporation technique. Iron status was measured in 138 healthy men (ninety-one wild-type, forty-seven C282Y heterozygote), six hereditary haemochromatosis patients, and thirteen pregnant women. Mean serum prohepcidin concentrations were 214 (sd 118) ng/ml [208 (sd 122) ng/ml in wild-type and 225 (sd 109) ng/ml in C282Y heterozygotes] in healthy men, 177 (sd 36) ng/ml in haemochromatosis patients, and 159 (sd 59) ng/ml in pregnant women. There was no relationship between serum prohepcidin concentration and serum ferritin in any subject groups, nor was it associated with efficiency of iron absorption. Serum prohepcidin is not a useful biomarker for clinical or research purposes.
This study investigated the phonological awareness of low-income Spanish–English bilingual children, because phonological awareness has been found to be an important prerequisite for literacy acquisition and because such children have been identified as at risk for successful literacy acquisition. Our sample included 123 Spanish–English bilingual preschool children (M=49.1 months) attending Head Start programs. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—3rd Edition and the Test de Vocabulario en Imagines Peabody. We assessed phonological awareness using English and Spanish versions of the Early Phonological Awareness Profile, which includes deletion detection and rhyming tasks. Emergent literacy was assessed in the child's stronger language using the Emergent Literacy Profile, which includes tests of environmental print knowledge, printed word awareness, alphabet knowledge, and early writing. Spring levels of phonological awareness in each language were most strongly related to development of phonological awareness in the other language. Final models accounted for 68% of the variance in spring English and Spanish phonological awareness. Educational implications are discussed.
In this paper, we consider a 2D mathematical modelling of the vertical
compaction effect in a water saturated sedimentary basin. This model is
described by the usual conservation laws, Darcy's law, the porosity as a
function of the vertical component of the effective stress and the
Kozeny-Carman tensor, taking into account fracturation effects. This model
leads to study the time discretization of a nonlinear system of
partial differential equations. The existence is obtained by a fixed-point
argument. The uniqueness proof, by Holmgren's method, leads to work
out a linear, strongly coupled, system of partial differential equations and
The legend of Tristan and Isolde -- the archetypal narrative about the turbulent effects of all-consuming, passionate love -- achieved its most complete and profound rendering in the German poet Gottfried von Strassburg's verse romance Tristan (ca. 1200-1210). Along with his great literary rival Wolfram von Eschenbach and his versatile predecessor Hartmann von Aue, Gottfried is considered one of three greatest poets produced by medieval Germany, and over the centuries his Tristan has lost none of its ability to attract with the beauty of its poetry and to challenge -- if not provoke -- with its sympathetic depiction of adulterous love. The essays, written by a dozen leading Gottfried specialists in Europe and North America, provide definitive treatments of significant aspectsof this most important and challenging high medieval version of the Tristan legend. They examine aspects of Gottfried's unparalleled narrative artistry; the important connections between Gottfried'sTristan and the socio-cultural situation in which it was composed; and the reception of Gottfried's challenging romance both by later poets in the Middle Ages and by nineteenth- and twentieth-century authors, composers, and artists -- particularly Richard Wagner. The volume also contains new interpretations of significant figures, episodes, and elements (Riwalin and Blanscheflur, Isolde ofthe White Hands, the Love Potion, the performance of love, the female figures) in Gottfried's revolutionary romance, which provocatively elevates a sexual, human love to a summum bonum.
Will Hasty is Professor of German at the University of Florida. He is the editor of Companion to Wolfram's "Parzival," (Camden House, 1999).
Enzymatic treatments that facilitated whole-cell electrophysiological recordings were used on Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. Ventral optic nerves were treated with either collagenase or collagenase, papain, and trypsin. Either treatment greatly increased the ease of making whole-cell recordings of transmembrane potentials. Light responses obtained from enzyme-treated photoreceptor cells were nearly identical to results obtained without enzyme treatment and compared favorably to in vivo recordings of light responses from the compound lateral eye. Enzyme-treated cells also responded to applied octopamine, as do untreated cells, with an increased phosphorylation of a 122-kD protein. This suggests that the external receptors and internal biochemical machinery required for at least one second-messenger cascade are present after enzyme treatment. The morphological integrity of enzyme-treated photoreceptor cells was examined with light microscopy as well as with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In general, we found that each enzyme treatment greatly reduced the integrity of the layers of glial cells that surround the photoreceptor cells thereby making these cells easily accessible for whole-cell recordings of transmembrane potentials. The morphology of the rhabdomere was normal after enzymatic degradation of the adjacent glial covering.
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