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Longitudinal studies of the relationship between cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder are scarce, although cognition is thought to be a key determinant of functioning. The causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown.
We sought to examine the direction of causality between cognitive performance and functional outcome over 2 years in a large cohort of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
The sample consisted of 272 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder who were euthymic at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All participants were recruited via the FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorders. We used a battery of tests, assessing six domains of cognition at baseline and 24 months. Residual depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 and 24 months. The possible causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated with cross-lagged panel models with residual depressive symptoms as a covariate.
The analyses support a causal model in which cognition moderately predicts and is causally primary to functional outcome 1 year later, whereas psychosocial functioning does not predict later cognitive performance. Subthreshold depressive symptoms concurrently affected functioning at each time of measure.
Our results are compatible with an upward causal effect of cognition on functional outcome in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychological assessment may help specify individual prognoses. Further studies are warranted to confirm this causal link and evaluate cognitive remediation, before or simultaneously with functional remediation, as an intervention to improve functional outcome.
Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.
We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.
One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.
This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.
The relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognition and functioning in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder is a subject of debate.
To assess whether cognition mediates the association between residual depressive symptoms and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who were euthymic.
We included 241 adults with euthymic bipolar disorder in a multicentre cross-sectional study. We used a battery of tests to assess six cognition domains. A path analysis was then used to perform a mediation analysis of the relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognitive components and functioning.
Only verbal and working memory were significantly associated with better functioning. Residual depressive symptoms were associated with poorer functioning. No significant relationship was found between residual depressive symptoms and any cognitive component.
Cognition and residual depressive symptoms appear to be two independent sources of variation in the functioning of people with euthymic bipolar disorder.
Young Onset Dementia (YOD), defined by first symptoms of cognitive or behavioral decline occurring before the age of 65 years, is relatively rare compared to dementia of later onset, but it is associated with diagnostic difficulty and heavy burden on affected individuals and their informal carers. Existing health and social care structures rarely meet the needs of YOD patients. Internet-based interventions are a novel format of delivering health-related education, counseling, and support to this vulnerable yet underserved group.
The RHAPSODY (Research to Assess Policies and Strategies for Dementia in the Young) project is a European initiative to improve care for people with YOD by providing an internet-based information and skill-building program for family carers. The e-learning program focuses on managing problem behaviors, dealing with role change, obtaining support, and looking after oneself. It will be evaluated in a pilot study in three countries using a randomized unblinded design with a wait-list control group. Participants will be informal carers of people with dementia in Alzheimer's disease or behavioral-variant Frontotemporal degeneration with an onset before the age of 65 years. The primary outcome will be caregiving self-efficacy after 6 weeks of program use. As secondary outcomes, caregivers’ stress and burden, carer health-related quality of life, caring-related knowledge, patient problem behaviors, and user satisfaction will be assessed. Program utilization will be monitored and a health-economic evaluation will also be performed.
The RHAPSODY project will add to the evidence on the potential and limitations of a conveniently accessible, user-friendly, and comprehensive internet-based intervention as an alternative for traditional forms of counseling and support in healthcare, aiming to optimize care and support for people with YOD and their informal caregivers.
Illegal killing/taking of birds is a growing concern across the Mediterranean. However, there are few quantitative data on the species and countries involved. We assessed numbers of individual birds of each species killed/taken illegally in each Mediterranean country per year, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. We estimated that 11–36 million individuals per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. In each of Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Lebanon and Syria, more than two million birds may be killed/taken on average each year. For species such as Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, more than one million individuals of each species are estimated to be killed/taken illegally on average every year. Several species of global conservation concern are also reported to be killed/taken illegally in substantial numbers: Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca and Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca. Birds in the Mediterranean are illegally killed/taken primarily for food, sport and for use as cage-birds or decoys. At the 20 worst locations with the highest reported numbers, 7.9 million individuals may be illegally killed/taken per year, representing 34% of the mean estimated annual regional total number of birds illegally killed/taken for all species combined. Our study highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing/taking of birds. Monitoring schemes which use systematic sampling protocols are needed to generate increasingly robust data on trends in illegal killing/taking over time and help stakeholders prioritise conservation actions to address this international conservation problem. Large numbers of birds are also hunted legally in the region, but specific totals are generally unavailable. Such data, in combination with improved estimates for illegal killing/taking, are needed for robustly assessing the sustainability of exploitation of birds.
In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability.
The International Astronomical Union's Commission 51 was established in 1982 as\break “Bioastronomy: Search for Extraterrestrial Life”. As the interests of Commission members expanded to include all aspects of the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe, C51 was renamed simply “Bioastronomy” in 2006. Thus, the term “bioastronomy” became for the Commission essentially synonymous with the NASA-coined term “astrobiology“. Since the latter term has been adopted by many scientific societies around the world with similar interests, under the new Division and Commission structure of the IAU the Commission has been again renamed and is now Commission F-3 “Astrobiology”.
Wireless domestic applications involving high data rates are required to work on millimeter wave band. Signal propagation at this frequency range is affected by walls and oxygen absorption which limits communication distances to few meters in one room. Radio coverage can be extended to other rooms by optical links. Performances of such photonic systems are dependent on optoelectronic devices, electrical driving, and receiver circuits. In this paper, radio-over-fiber (RoF) links based on the intensity modulation and direct detection technique are investigated for transmission of a broadband OFDM signal. Direct and external modulations are exploited to analyze system performances according to the ultra wideband (UWB) millimeter-band standard. To avoid component tolerances at high frequencies, an intermediate frequency modulation of the optical transducers is chosen. Optoelectronic and optical components of RoF links are modeled by equivalent electrical circuits with consideration of noise and nonlinearities. These models are validated in system simulation by error vector magnitude evaluation with a measurement setup according to the UWB centimeter-band standard.
The microstructural evolution of a cold drawn copper wire (reduction area of 38%) during primary recrystallization and grain growth was observed in situ by electron backscatter diffraction. Two thermal treatments were performed, and successive scans were acquired on samples undergoing heating from ambient temperature to a steady state of 200°C or 215°C. During a third in situ annealing, the temperature was continuously increased up to 600°C. Nuclei were observed to grow at the expense of the deformed microstructure. This growth was enhanced by the high stored energy difference between the nuclei and their neighbors (driving energy in recrystallization) and by the presence of high-angle grain boundaries of high mobility. In the early stages of growth, the nuclei twin and the newly created orientations continue to grow to the detriment of the strained copper. At high temperatures, the disappearance of some twins was evidenced by the migration of the incoherent twin boundaries. Thermal grooving of grain boundaries is observed at these high temperatures and affects the high mobile boundaries but tends to preserve the twin boundaries of lower energy. Thus, grooving may contribute to the twin vanishing.
We report our new results of the magnetic field (B) morphologies toward W51 North, traced with the linear polarization of the dust continuum at wavelengths of 870 μm. The B morphologies are resolved with an angular resolution of typically 1” using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Dense structures with a number density 105 to 107 cm−3 are traced. In comparison, the B morphologies of sources at different evolutionary stages, from the collapsing core in W51 e2 (Tang et al. 2009a) and part of Orion BN/KL (Tang et al. 2010) to the ultra-compact HII region G5.89-0.39 (Tang et al. 2009b) clearly exhibit different morphologies, likely suggesting different roles of the B fields at different stages.
We are undertaking a project (MAGMO) to examine large-scale magnetic fields pervading regions of high-mass star formation. The project will test if the orientations of weak large-scale magnetic fields can be maintained in the contraction (and field amplification) to the high densities encountered in high-mass star forming regions. This will be achieved through correlating targeted observations of ground-state hydroxyl (OH) maser emission towards hundreds of sites of high-mass star formation spread throughout the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Through the Zeeman splitting of the OH maser emission these observations will determine the strength and orientation of the in-situ magnetic field. The completion of the southern hemisphere Methanol Multibeam survey has provided an abundance of targets for ground-state OH maser observations, approximately 1000 sites of high-mass star formation. With this sample, much larger and more homogeneous than previously available, we will have the statistics necessary to outweigh random fluctuations and observe an underlying Galactic magnetic field if it exists. We presented details of the overall progress of the project illustrated by the results of a pilot sample of sources towards the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm tangent, where a coherent field is implied.
Orchid species are well known for their highly specialized pollinator interactions. To better understand the reproductive biology of the tropical epiphytic orchid Bulbophyllum variegatum on Réunion, we investigated the floral morphology, breeding system, pollinator diversity, floral scent profile and fruiting success of about 30 individuals in three natural populations during two consecutive flowering seasons. Controlled hand-pollination experiments in two populations showed that the species is self-compatible, but requires pollinator service to achieve reproduction. Videotape pollinator observations were conducted during two flowering seasons for 56 h and revealed that B. variegatum is pollinated by a single species of fly from the Platystomatidae. This fly seems to be attracted by the unpleasant scent produced by the flowers, and does not receive any reward after achieving pollination. In addition, no egg-laying behaviour was observed. Bulbophyllum variegatum thus exhibits a typical sapromyiophilous pollination syndrome which constitutes the first proven case of sapromyiophily within the genus Bulbophyllum on the Mascarene Archipelago. Hand pollinations further showed that fruit set was not significantly higher for flowers that received outcross pollen than for those that were self-crossed (53% and 44% respectively). Fruit sets under natural conditions were significantly different among populations, ranging from 0.5% to 24.3%. This low fruit production is likely due to infrequent pollinator visits, particularly in disturbed forests where the pollinator has never been observed.
If it is commonly agreed that the presence of a (moderately) close stellar companion affects the formation and the dynamical evolution of giant planets, the frequency of giant planets residing in binary systems separated by less than 100 AU is unknown. To address this issue, we have conducted with VLT/NACO a systematic adaptive optics search for moderately close stellar companions to 130 nearby solar-type stars. According to the data from Doppler surveys, half of our targets host at least one planetary companion, while the other half show no evidence for short-period giant planets. We present here the final results of our survey, which include a new series of second-epoch measurements to test for common proper motion. The new observations confirm the physical association of two companion candidates and prove the unbound status of many others. These results strengthen our former conclusion that circumstellar giant planets are slightly less frequent in binaries with mean semimajor axes between 35 and 100 AU than in wider systems or around single stars.
First we investigate the spectral and photometric properties (colours, magnitudes) of a sample of faint Be stars observed in the first exoplanet fields of CoRoT (IR1, LRA1 and LRC1). We determine the fundamental parameters by fitting ESO-FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra with synthetic models taking account for non-LTE effects. After that we correct these parameters from fast rotation effects. We also study the location of each star in the (logL vs logT) HR diagram. Second we start to analyse the CoRoT light curves to investigate further the possible correlation between the pulsating properties and the fundamental parameters of the stars.
In this work, the mechanical properties of cubic silicon carbide are explored through the analysis of the static and dynamic behavior of 3C-SiC cantilevers. The investigated structures were micro-machined using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching of thin 3C-SiC films grown on silicon. The aim was to evaluate the influence of some basic parameters (film orientation, film thickness, defect density) on the mechanical properties of the material.
X-Ray Diffraction was used to evaluate the crystalline quality of the epilayers. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of static cantilever deflection highlight the major difference between the stress states of (100) and (111) oriented layers for which the intrinsic stresses are of opposite signs. The cantilever deflection is highly dependent on the film thickness, as stated for (100) oriented epilayers. The lowest deflection is obtained for the thickest layer. The Young's modulus of 3C-SiC is calculated from the resonance frequency of clamped-free cantilevers, measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. The relatively low and orientation independent value of Young's modulus (~350GPa) found on the samples is probably associated with the high defect density usually observed in very thin 3C-SiC films grown on Si.
The spin dynamics of resident holes in singly p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots is studied by pump-probe photo-induced circular dichroism experiments. We show that the hole spin dephasing is controlled by the hyperfine interaction between the hole spin and nuclear spins. We find a characteristic hole spin dephasing time of 12 ns, in close agreement with our calculations based on a dipole-dipole coupling between the hole and the quantum dot nuclei. Finally we demonstrate that a small external magnetic field, typically 10 mT, quenches the hyperfine hole spin dephasing.
Strontium titanate (STO) thin films (45-67 % Sr) were deposited by atomic layer deposition using Sr(tBu3Cp)2/Ti(OMe)4/H2O as precursors. The Sr content of the layers is well controlled by the precursor pulse ratio, as indicated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The amount of Sr and Ti deposited depends on the Sr:Ti pulse ratio and indicates the enhancement of the Ti precursor reactivity in the presence of Sr-OH. STO compositions that are closer to stoichiometric SrTiO3 result in denser films with correspondingly higher index of refraction. The increase (decrease) of the Sr content over (below) 50 % leads to an expansion (contraction) of the lattice parameter corresponding to cubic SrTiO3 with a perovskite structure. The dielectric constant (extracted from film thickness series) and leakage current strongly depends both on the Sr content and the crystalline state of the films.