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In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
We report on experiments of turbulent particle-laden plumes descending through a stratified environment. We show that provided the characteristic plume speed
exceeds the particle fall speed, where the plume buoyancy flux is
and the Brunt–Väisälä frequency is
, then the plume is arrested by the stratification and initially intrudes at the neutral height associated with a single-phase plume of the same buoyancy flux. If the original fluid phase in the plume has density equal to that of the ambient fluid at the source, then as the particles sediment from the intruding fluid, the fluid finds itself buoyant and rises, ultimately intruding at a height of about
of the original plume height, consistent with new predictions we present based on classical plume theory. We generalise this result, and show that if the buoyancy flux at the source is composed of a fraction
associated with the buoyancy of the source fluid, and a fraction
from the particles, then following the sedimentation of the particles, the plume fluid intrudes at a height
is the maximum plume height. This is key for predictions of the environmental impact of any material dissolved in the plume water which may originate from the particle load. We also show that the particles sediment at their fall speed through the fluid below the maximum depth of the plume as a cylindrical column whose area scales as the ratio of the particle flux at the source to the fall speed and concentration of particles in the plume at the maximum depth of the plume before it is arrested by the stratification. We demonstrate that there is negligible vertical transport of fluid in this cylindrical column, but a series of layers of high and low particle concentration develop in the column with a vertical spacing which is given by the ratio of the buoyancy of the particle load and the background buoyancy gradient. Small fluid intrusions develop at the side of the column associated with these layers, as dense parcels of particle-laden fluid convect downwards and then outward once the particles have sedimented from the fluid, with a lateral return flow drawing in ambient fluid. As a result, the pattern of particle-rich and particle-poor layers in the column gradually migrates upwards owing to the convective transport of particles between the particle-rich layers superposed on the background sedimentation. We consider the implications of the results for mixing by bubble plumes, for submarine blowouts of oil and gas and for the fate of plumes of waste particles discharged at the ocean surface during deep-sea mining.
Accurately dating when people first colonized new areas is vital for understanding the pace of past cultural and environmental changes, including questions of mobility, human impacts and human responses to climate change. Establishing effective chronologies of these events requires the synthesis of multiple radiocarbon (14C) dates. Various “chronometric hygiene” protocols have been used to refine 14C dating of island colonization, but they can discard up to 95% of available 14C dates leaving very small datasets for further analysis. Despite their foundation in sound theory, without independent tests we cannot know if these protocols are apt, too strict or too lax. In Iceland, an ice core-dated tephrochronology of the archaeology of first settlement enables us to evaluate the accuracy of 14C chronologies. This approach demonstrated that the inclusion of a wider range of 14C samples in Bayesian models improves the precision, but does not affect the model outcome. Therefore, based on our assessments, we advocate a new protocol that works with a much wider range of samples and where outlying 14C dates are systematically disqualified using Bayesian Outlier Models. We show that this approach can produce robust termini ante quos for colonization events and may be usefully applied elsewhere.
We present new experimental data on the controls on the buoyancy flux in a stratified turbulent flow. The inner cylinder of an annulus of fluid with vertical axis is rotated to produce a turbulent flow field with Reynolds numbers of up to
, while a flux of saline fluid is supplied to the base of the tank, and an equal flux of fresh fluid is supplied to the top of the tank. In addition, fluid is vented from the base and the top of the tank with the same volume fluxes as the supply. The steady-state vertical flux of salt is explored. When the salt flux supplied to the base of the tank is very small, the tank becomes nearly well-mixed, and the vertical salt flux is approximately equal to one-half the source flux. As the source salt flux increases, a weak stable salinity gradient develops across the tank, and the vertical salt flux increases. As the source flux continues to increase, eventually the vertical salt flux reaches a maximum, and further increases in the source salt flux can lead to an increase in the vertical salinity gradient but not the vertical flux. We interpret the transition in the vertical buoyancy flux as representing a change from a source-limited regime, where the buoyancy flux and buoyancy frequency,
, are related, to a mixing-limited regime, in which the buoyancy flux is independent of
. In the mixing-limited regime, the effective eddy diffusivity is proportional to
while in the source-limited regime, the eddy diffusivity is approximately proportional to
are the characteristic turbulence speed and length scale. This transition may have implications for the balance between upwelling and diapycnal mixing in the ocean, if the intensity of the turbulence varies in space or the flux of deep water varies in time.
We study the migration of a tracer within an injection-driven flow in a horizontal aquifer in which the permeability varies with depth. The permeability gradient produces a shear and this leads to lateral dispersion of the tracer. In the high permeability regions, the tracer moves substantially faster than the mean flow and eventually enters the nose region of the flow where the depth of the current is less than the depth of the aquifer. Depending on the influence of (i) the viscosity contrast between the injected fluid and the original fluid, and (ii) the vertical permeability gradient, the nose of the current may be of fixed shape or may gradually lengthen with time. This leads to a variety of patterns of dispersal of the tracer, which may either remain in the nose or cycle through the nose and be left behind. Our results illustrate the complexity of the migration of a tracer in a heterogeneous aquifer which has important implications for interpreting the results of tracer tests as may be proposed for monitoring
or gas injected into subsurface reservoirs.
We present new experiments and theoretical models of the motion of relatively dense particles carried upwards by a liquid jet into a laterally confined space filled with the same liquid. The incoming jet is negatively buoyant and rises to a finite height, at which the dense mixture of liquid and particles, diluted by the entrainment of ambient liquid, falls back to the floor. The mixture further dilutes during the collapse and then spreads out across the floor and supplies an up-flow outside the fountain equal to the source volume flux plus the total entrained volume flux. The fate of the particles depends on the particle fall speed,
, compared to (i) the characteristic fountain velocity in the fountain core,
, (ii) the maximum upward velocity in the ambient fluid outside the fountain,
, which occurs at the base of the fountain, and (iii) the upward velocity in the ambient fluid above the top of the fountain associated with the original volume flux in the liquid jet,
. From this comparison we identify four regimes. (I) If
, then the particles separate from the fountain and settle on the floor. (II) If
, the particles are carried to the top of the fountain but then settle as the collapsing flow around the fountain spreads out across the floor; we do not observe particle suspension in the background flow. (III) For
we observe a particle-laden layer outside the fountain which extends from the floor of the tank to a point below the top of the fountain. The density of this lower particle-laden layer equals the density of the collapsing fountain fluid as it passes downwards through this interface. The collapsing fluid then spreads out horizontally through the depth of this particle-laden layer, instead of continuing downwards around the rising fountain. In the lower layer, the negatively buoyant source fluid in fact rises as a negatively buoyant jet, but this transitions into a fountain above the upper interface of the particle-laden layer. The presence of the particles in the lower layer reduces the density difference between fountain and environment, leading to an increase in the fountain height. (IV) If
then an ascending front of particles rises above the fountain and eventually fills the entire tank up to the level where fluid is removed from the tank. We compare the results of a series of new laboratory experiments with simple theoretical investigations for each case, and discuss the relevance of our results.
We examine the injection of fluid of one viscosity and density into a horizontal permeable aquifer initially saturated with a second fluid of different viscosity and density. The novel feature of the analysis is that we allow the permeability to vary vertically across the aquifer. This leads to recognition that the interface may evolve as either a rarefaction wave that spreads at a rate proportional to
, a shock-like front of fixed length or a mixture of shock-like regions and rarefaction-wave-type regions. The classical solutions in which there is no viscosity ratio between the fluids and in which the formation has constant permeability lead to an interface that spreads laterally at a rate proportional to
. However, these solutions are unstable to cross-layer variations in the permeability owing to the vertical shear which develops in the flow, causing the structure of the interface to evolve to the rarefaction wave or shock-like structure. In the case that the viscosities of the two fluids are different, it is possible that the solution involves a mixture of shock-like and rarefaction-type structures as a function of the distance above the lower boundary. Using the theory of characteristics, we develop a regime diagram to delineate the different situations. We consider the implications of such heterogeneity for the prediction of front locations during
sequestration. If we neglect the permeability fluctuations, the model always predicts rarefaction-type solutions, while even modest changes in the permeability across a layer can introduce shocks. This difference may be very significant since it leads to the
plume occupying a greater fraction of the pore space between the injector and the leading edge of the
front in a layer of the same mean permeability. This has important implications for estimates of the fraction of the pore space that the
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral frontal active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at 2 mA for 12 minute Versus sham stimulation on functional connectivity of the working memory network during an fMRI N-Back task. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Stimulation was delivered over bilateral frontal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via and MRI-compatible tDCS device during an fMRI working memory task in healthy older adults in a within-subject design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Active stimulation compared with sham resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity in working memory related brain regions during the N-Back task. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Older adults typically have reduced functional connectivity compared with young adults. Our findings demonstrate that a single session of tDCS can increase functional connectivity of the working memory network in older adults. Based on this mechanism of effect, tDCS may serve as an adjunctive method for interventions aiming to enhance cognitive processes in older adults.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
How do political scientists use online tools as part of their scholarly work? Are there systematic differences in how they value these tools by field, gender, or other demographics? How important are these tools relative to traditional practices of political scientists? The answers to these questions will shape how our discipline chooses to reward academics who engage with “new media” such as blogs, online seminars (i.e., webinars), Twitter, and Facebook. We find that traditional tools of scholarship are more highly regarded and used more often than any new media, although blogs are considered most important among new media. However, we also find evidence that these webinars are used and valued at rates comparable to traditional tools when they are provided in ways that meet political scientists’ needs. Finally, we observe that women and graduate students are substantially more likely than men and tenure-track academics to report that webinars and online videos are important sources of new ideas and findings.
The two-dimensional dynamics of a thin film of viscous fluid spreading between a permeable horizontal plate and an overlying thin elastic sheet is explored. We use a lubrication model to describe the balance between the elastic stress, the hydrostatic pressure gradient and the viscous resistance of the flow, as fluid spreads laterally from a source and simultaneously drains through the plate. A family of asymptotic solutions are described in which the flow is dominated by either the hydrostatic pressure gradient or the elastic stress associated with the deformation of the sheet. In these solutions, although the deformation of the sheet above the porous plate arises from the fluid flow below the sheet, the fluid typically separates from the sheet a short distance upstream of the full extent of the draining zone, with the region of flow being driven purely by the hydrostatic pressure gradient. As a result, an air gap develops below the sheet up to the point where it touches back down onto the plate. With a very light or stiff elastic sheet, this touchdown point may extend far beyond the fluid draining zone, but otherwise it is similar to the extent of the draining zone.
The solar magnesium II core-to-wing ratio has been a well-studied proxy for chromospheric activity since 1978. Daily measurements at high spectral (0.1 nm) resolution began with the launch of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) in 2003. The next generation of measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) will add high time cadence (every 30 seconds) to the observational Mg II irradiance record. We present a comparison of the two measurements during the period of overlap.
Ultraviolet (UV) Solar spectral Irradiance (SSI) has been measured from orbit on a regular basis since the beginning of the space age. These observations span four Solar Cycles, and they are crucial for our understanding of the Sun-Earth connection and space weather. SSI at these wavelengths are the main drivers for the upper atmosphere including the production and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The instruments that measure UV SSI not only require good preflight calibration, but also need a robust method to maintain that calibration on orbit. We will give an overview of the catalog of current and former UV SSI measurements along with the calibration philosophy of each instrument and an estimation of the uncertainties in the published irradiances.
We report daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from bloodstream infections over a 4-year period. The daptomycin MIC increased over time hospital-wide for initial isolates and increased over time within patients, culminating in 40% of patients having daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates in the final year of the study.
We explore the dynamics of turbulent bubble fountains produced when a descending stream of fresh water and air bubbles issues from a nozzle submerged in a tank of water. The bubbles have diameters of 2 to 5 mm and the fountains have source Froude numbers ranging from 10 to 240. The Reynolds numbers of the bubbly fountains range from 4000 to 24 000. The bubbles, carried into the tank by the downward jet of water, lead to a buoyancy force which reduces the downward momentum of the jet, thus producing a fountain. We find that
, the downward penetration distance of the bubbles into the water reservoir, may be characterised by two parameters:
, the ratio of the bubble rise speed to the characteristic fountain velocity,
, the source Froude number, given by
are the source volume, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. As
decreases, a result which is directly analogous to the height of rise of particles in a particle-laden fountain (Mingotti & Woods, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 793, 2016, R1). Also, we find that
increases, a result directly analogous to single-phase fountains (Turner, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 26, 1966, pp. 779–792). We present a model for the conservation of volume, momentum and buoyancy fluxes and use this to predict the penetration distance of the bubbles corresponding to that point at which the fountain liquid velocity equals the bubble rise speed. Using the best-fit value for the entrainment coefficient,
, we find that our experimental measurements of the bubble penetration distance are in good accord with the model predictions for
. In our experiments the bubble rise speed,
, is large compared to the entrainment velocity of the descending fountain. Thus, only a small fraction of the rising bubbles are re-entrained, and so the buoyancy flux of the fountain is approximately independent of depth. Flow-visualisation experiments also show that the liquid momentum flux is not exhausted at the point of bubble separation and so the liquid in the fountain continues to travel downward, separated from the bubbles. We use the new theoretical model to estimate the flux of air entrained into plunging water jets.
High-Reynolds-number steady currents of relatively dense fluid propagating along a horizontal boundary become unstable and mix with the overlying fluid if the gradient Richardson number across the interface is less than 1/4. The process of entrainment produces a deepening mixing layer at the interface, which increases the gradient Richardson number of this layer and eventually may suppress further entrainment. The conservation of the vertically averaged buoyancy and momentum flux, as the current advances along the boundary, leads to two integral constraints relating the downstream flow with that upstream of the mixing zone. These constraints are equivalent to imposing a Froude number in the upstream flow. Using the ansatz that the dowstream velocity and buoyancy profiles in the current have a lower well-mixed region overlain by an interfacial layer of constant gradient, we can use these two constraints to quantify the total entrainment of ambient fluid into the flow as a function of the gradient Richardson number of the downstream flow. This leads to recognition that both subcritical and supercritical currents may develop downstream of the mixing zone. However, as the mixing increases and the interfacial layer gradually deepens, there is a critical point at which these two solution branches coincide. For each upstream Froude number, we can also determine the downstream flow with maximal entrainment. This maximal entrainment solution coincides with the convergence point of the supercritical and subcritical branches. We compare this with the entrainment predicted for those solutions with a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which corresponds to the marginally stable case. As the upstream Froude number
increases, the maximum depth of the interfacial mixing layer gradually increases until eventually, for
, the whole current may become modified through entrainment. We discuss the relevance of these results for mixing in gravity-driven flows.