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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is host to a broadband, multimode seismic wavefield that is excited in response to atmospheric, oceanic and solid Earth source processes. A 34-station broadband seismographic network installed on the RIS from late 2014 through early 2017 produced continuous vibrational observations of Earth's largest ice shelf at both floating and grounded locations. We characterize temporal and spatial variations in broadband ambient wavefield power, with a focus on period bands associated with primary (10–20 s) and secondary (5–10 s) microseism signals, and an oceanic source process near the ice front (0.4–4.0 s). Horizontal component signals on floating stations overwhelmingly reflect oceanic excitations year-round due to near-complete isolation from solid Earth shear waves. The spectrum at all periods is shown to be strongly modulated by the concentration of sea ice near the ice shelf front. Contiguous and extensive sea ice damps ocean wave coupling sufficiently so that wintertime background levels can approach or surpass those of land-sited stations in Antarctica.
The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a longitudinal twin study that recruited over 16,000 twin-pairs born between 1994 and 1996 in England and Wales through national birth records. More than 10,000 of these families are still engaged in the study. TEDS was and still is a representative sample of the population in England and Wales. Rich cognitive and emotional/behavioral data have been collected from the twins from infancy to emerging adulthood, with data collection at first contact and at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 21, enabling longitudinal genetically sensitive analyses. Data have been collected from the twins themselves, from their parents and teachers, and from the UK National Pupil Database. Genotyped DNA data are available for 10,346 individuals (who are unrelated except for 3320 dizygotic co-twins). TEDS data have contributed to over 400 scientific papers involving more than 140 researchers in 50 research institutions. TEDS offers an outstanding resource for investigating cognitive and behavioral development across childhood and early adulthood and actively fosters scientific collaborations.
The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent–child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.
We study spatial and spatio-temporal pattern formation emergent from reaction–diffusion–advection systems formed by considering reaction–diffusion systems coupled to prescribed fluid flows. While there have been a number of studies on the planar dynamics of such systems and the resulting instabilities and spatio-temporal patterning in the plane, less has been done on complicated flows in complex domains. We consider a general approach for the study of bounded domains in order to model two- and three-dimensional geometries which are more likely to be of relevance for modelling dynamics within fluid vessels used in experiments. Considering a variety of problem geometries with finite cross-sections, such as two-dimensional channels, three-dimensional ducts and three-dimensional pipes, we demonstrate the role cross-section geometry plays in pattern formation under such systems. We find that the generic instability is that of an oscillatory or wave Turing instability, resulting in patterns which change in time, often being advected with the fluid flow. As in previous works, we observe a change in patterns formed when progressing from zero to weak to strong advection for uniform advection across the domain, with particularly strong advection destroying patterns. One novel finding is that heterogeneous fluid flow can induce qualitatively different patterns across the domain. For instance, Poiseuille flow with maximal advection in the centre of a vessel and zero advection at the boundary of a vessel is shown to exhibit patterns in the centre of the vessel which are different from patterns near the boundary, with differences attributed to the differential local advection within each region of the vessel. Additionally, we observe sheared patterns, which appear due to gradients in the fluid velocity, and cannot be obtained via any kind of uniform flow. Finally we also explore flow in more complex domains, including wavy-walled channels, continuous stirred-tank reactors, U-shaped pipes and a toroidal domain, in order to demonstrate behaviours when the flow is both heterogeneous and bidirectional, as well as to demonstrate that our results still apply for complex finite domains. Our analysis suggests that such non-trivial advection results in moving patterns which are more complex than observed in simpler reaction–diffusion–advection, and may be more characteristic of realistic flow regimes in biological media.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Surface mass balance (SMB) is the net input of mass on a glacier's upper surface, composed of snow deposition, melt and erosion processes, and is a major contributor to the overall mass balance. Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in West Antarctica has been dynamically imbalanced since the early 1990s, indicating that discharge of solid ice into the oceans exceeds snow deposition. However, observations of the SMB pattern on the fast flowing regions are scarce, and are potentially affected by the firn's strain history. Here, we present new observations from radar-derived stratigraphy and a relatively dense network of firn cores, collected along a ~900 km traverse of PIG. Between 1986 and 2014, the SMB along the traverse was 0.505 m w.e. a−1 on average with a gradient of higher snow deposition in the South-West compared with the North-East of the catchment. We show that along ~80% of the traverse the strain history amounts to a misestimation of SMB below the nominal uncertainty, but can exceed it by a factor 5 in places, making it a significant correction to the SMB estimate locally. We find that the strain correction changes the basin-wide SMB by ~0.7 Gt a−1 and thus forms a negligible (1%) correction to the glacier's total SMB.
The current study examined whether social status and social integration, two related but distinct indicators of an adolescent's standing within a peer network, mediate the association between risky symptoms (depressive symptoms and deviant behavior) and substance use across adolescence. The sample of 6,776 adolescents participated in up to seven waves of data collection spanning 6th to 12th grades. Scores indexing social status and integration were derived from a social network analysis of six schools and subsequent psychometric modeling. Results of latent growth models showed that social integration and status mediated the relation between risky symptoms and substance use and that risky symptoms mediated the relation between social standing and substance use during the high school transition. Before this transition, pathways involving deviant behavior led to high social integration and status and in turn to substance use. After this transition, both deviant behavior and depressive symptoms led to low social integration and status and in turn greater substance use. These findings suggest that the high school transition is a risky time for substance use related to the interplay of increases in depressive symptoms and deviant behavior on the one hand and decreases in social status and integration on the other.
Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia management in crop rotations. Kochia control varied by experimental site such that more variation in kochia control and biomass production was explained by experimental site than herbicide choice within a crop. Kochia control with herbicides currently labeled for use in sugar beet averaged 32% across locations. Kochia control was greatest and most consistent from corn herbicide programs (99%), followed by soybean (96%) and fallow (97%) herbicide programs. Kochia control from wheat herbicide programs was 93%. With respect to the availability of effective herbicide options, glyphosate-resistant kochia control was easiest in corn, soybean, and fallow, followed by wheat; and difficult to manage with herbicides in sugar beet.
Tribology—the study of contacting, sliding surfaces—seeks to explain the fundamental mechanisms underlying friction, adhesion, lubrication, and wear, and to apply this knowledge to technologies ranging from transportation and manufacturing to biomedicine and energy. Investigating the contact and sliding of materials is complicated by the fact that the interface is buried from view, inaccessible to conventional experimental tools. In situ investigations are thus critical in visualizing and identifying the underlying physical processes. This article presents key recent advances in the understanding of tribological phenomena made possible by in situ experiments at the nanoscale. Specifically, progress in three key areas is highlighted: (1) direct observation of physical processes in the sliding contact; (2) quantitative analysis of the synergistic action of sliding and chemical reactions (known as tribochemistry) that drives material removal; and (3) understanding the surface and subsurface deformations occurring during sliding of metals. The article also outlines emerging areas where in situ nanoscale investigations can answer critical tribological questions in the future.
This article explores the ways in which histories were used in the moral and doctrinal education of Christian elites in the West from the late Roman to the Carolingian periods. In the sixth century, Cassiodorus wrote that histories, whether Christian or not, were useful for ‘instructing the minds of readers in heavenly matters’. How far was this characteristic of the period? Traditionally, scholars have emphasized either the apologetic purpose or the moral of specific histories, such as Orosius's Historiae or Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica. Few modern scholars, however, have examined the long-term development of history writing as a vehicle for Christian education during the transformation of the Roman world. Those who have done, such as Karl-Ferdinand Werner and Hans-Werner Goetz, have emphasized continuity rather than change. The article sketches some of the changes and continuities across the period. In particular, it demonstrates that there was a shift from the apologetic concerns of the fifth-century historians, writing to educate Christians from pagan backgrounds, to the doctrinal (as much as moral) concerns of Frankish historians, emerging from the Carolingian Renaissance.
Process mining, a branch of data science, aims at deriving an understanding of process behaviors from data collected during executions of the process. In this study, we apply process mining techniques to examine retrieval and transport of road trauma patients in Queensland. Specifically, we use multiple datasets collected from ground and air ambulance, emergency department, and hospital admissions to investigate the various patient pathways and transport modalities from accident to definitive care.
The project aims to answer the question, “Are we providing the right level of care to patients?” We focus on (i) automatically discovering, from historical records, the different care and transport processes, and (ii) identifying and quantifying factors influencing deviance from standard processes, e.g. mechanisms of injury and geospatial (crash and trauma facility) considerations.
We adapted the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining methodology to Queensland Ambulance Service, Retrieval Services Queensland (aero-medical), and Queensland Health (emergency department and hospital admissions) data. Data linkage and “case” definition emerged as particular challenges. We developed detailed data models, conduct a data quality assessment, and preliminary process mining analyses.
Preliminary results only with full results are presented at the conference. A collection of process models, which revealed multiple transport pathways, were automatically discovered from pilot data. Conformance checking showed some variations from expected processing. Systematic analysis of data quality allowed us to distinguish between systemic and occasional quality issues, and anticipate and explain certain observable features in process mining analyses. Results will be validated with domain experts to ensure insights are accurate and actionable.
Preliminary analysis unearthed challenging data quality issues that impact the use of historical retrieval data for secondary analysis. The automatically discovered process models will facilitate comparison of actual behavior with existing guidelines.
Autonomous landing on the deck of a boat or an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) is the minimum requirement for increasing the autonomy of water monitoring missions. This paper introduces an end-to-end control technique based on deep reinforcement learning for landing an unmanned aerial vehicle on a visual marker located on the deck of a USV. The solution proposed consists of a hierarchy of Deep Q-Networks (DQNs) used as high-level navigation policies that address the two phases of the flight: the marker detection and the descending manoeuvre. Few technical improvements have been proposed to stabilize the learning process, such as the combination of vanilla and double DQNs, and a partitioned buffer replay. Simulated studies proved the robustness of the proposed algorithm against different perturbations acting on the marine vessel. The performances obtained are comparable with a state-of-the-art method based on template matching.
The chemical analyses of pigments and fillers are important to both the manufacturer and the papermaker. Most standard analytical methods, including those of Technical Association of the Paper and Pulp Industry, are based on the so-called classical gravimetric and volumetric techniques. The major components analyzed are TiO2, SiO2 and Al2O3 . X-ray diffraction methods are available for the identification of crystalline fillers and pigments in finished paper.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, characterized by changes in attention and alertness, is a known independent predictor of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We sought to understand whether catatonia, a more recently recognized form of acute brain dysfunction, is associated with increased 30-day mortality in critically ill older adults. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Coma, was defined as a Richmond Agitation Scale score of −4 or −5. We used the Cox Proportional Hazards model predicting 30-day mortality after adjusting for delirium, coma and catatonia status. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We enrolled 335 medical, surgical or trauma critically ill patients with 1103 matched delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 58 years (IQR: 48 - 67). Main indications for admission to the ICU included: airway disease or protection (32%; N=100) or sepsis and/or shock (25%; N=79. In the unadjusted analysis, regardless of the presence of catatonia, non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while delirious patients have the lowest median survival time. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia worsens survival (Figure 1). In a time-dependent Cox model, comparing non-delirious individuals, holding catatonia status constant, delirious individuals have 1.72 times the hazards of death (IQR: 1.321, 2.231) while those with coma have 5.48 times the hazards of death (IQR: 4.298, 6.984). For DSM-5 catatonia scores, a 1-unit increase in the score is associated with 1.18 times the hazards of in-hospital mortality. Comparing two individuals with the same delirium status, an individual with a DSM-5 catatonia score of 0 (no catatonia) will have 1.178 times the hazard of death (IQR: 1.086, 1.278), while an individual with a score of 3 catatonia items (catatonia) present will have 1.63 times the hazard of death. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while those who are comatose have the lowest median survival times after a critical illness, holding catatonia status constant. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia seems to worsen survival. Those individual who are both comatose and catatonic have the lowest median survival time.