In this work, a method based on Raman spectroscopy in combination with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) has been developed for the rapid differentiation of heterofermentative related lactobacilli. In a first approach, Lactobacillus kefir strains were discriminated from other species of heterofermentative lactobacilli: Lb. parakefir and Lb. brevis. After this first approach, PCA allowed for a clear differentiation between Lb. parakefir and Lb.brevis. For the first level of discrimination, PCA was performed on the whole spectra and also on delimited regions, defined taking into consideration the loading values. The best regions allowing a clear differentiation between Lb. kefir and non-Lb. kefir strains were found to be: the 1700–1500 cm−1, 1500–1185 cm−1 and 1800–400 (whole spectrum) cm−1 Raman ranges. In order to develop a classification rule, PLS-DA was carried out on the mentioned regions. This method permitted the discrimination and classification of the strains under study in two groups: Lb. kefir and non-Lb. kefir. The model was further validated using lactobacilli strains from different culture collections or strains isolated from kefir grains previously identified using molecular methods. The second approach based on PCA was also performed on the whole spectra and on delimited regions, being the regions 1700–1500 cm−1, 1500–1185 cm−1 and 1185–1020 cm−1, i.e., those allowing the clearest discrimination between Lb. parakefir and Lb. brevis. The results obtained in this work, allowed a clear discrimination within heterofermentative lactobacilli strains, proteins being the biological structures most determinant for this discrimination.