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Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level.
We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient’s autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure.
A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual’s peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01).
Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Osteoporosis and related fractures are a major global health issue, but there are few preventative strategies. Previously reported associations between higher intakes of fruits and vegetables and skeletal health have been suggested to be partly attributable to vitamin C. To date, there is some evidence for a potential role of vitamin C in osteoporosis and fracture prevention but an overall consensus of published studies has not yet been drawn. The present review aims to provide a summary of the proposed underlying mechanisms of vitamin C on bone and reviews the current evidence in the literature, examining a potential link between vitamin C intake and status with osteoporosis and fractures. The Bradford Hill criteria were used to assess reported associations. Recent animal studies have provided insights into the involvement of vitamin C in osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, and its role as a mediator of bone matrix deposition, affecting both the quantity and quality of bone collagen. Observational studies have provided some evidence for this in the general population, showing positive associations between dietary vitamin C intake and supplements and higher bone mineral density or reduced fracture risk. However, previous intervention studies were not sufficiently well designed to evaluate these associations. Epidemiological data are particularly limited for vitamin C status and for fracture risk and good-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm previous epidemiological findings. The present review also highlights that associations between vitamin C and bone health may be non-linear and further research is needed to ascertain optimal intakes for osteoporosis and fracture prevention.
The cumulative effect of co-infections between pathogen pairs on the haematological response of East African Short-horn Zebu calves is described. Using a longitudinal study design a stratified clustered random sample of newborn calves were recruited into the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) study and monitored at 5-weekly intervals until 51 weeks of age. At each visit samples were collected and analysed to determine the infection status of each calf as well as their haematological response. The haematological parameters investigated included packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count (Plt). The pathogens of interest included tick-borne protozoa and rickettsias, trypanosomes and intestinal parasites. Generalized additive mixed-effect models were used to model the infectious status of pathogens against each haematological parameter, including significant interactions between pathogens. These models were further used to predict the cumulative effect of co-infecting pathogen pairs on each haematological parameter. The most significant decrease in PCV was found with co-infections of trypanosomes and strongyles. Strongyle infections also resulted in a significant decrease in WBC at a high infectious load. Trypanosomes were the major cause of thrombocytopenia. Platelet counts were also affected by interactions between tick-borne pathogens. Interactions between concomitant pathogens were found to complicate the prognosis and clinical presentation of infected calves and should be taken into consideration in any study that investigates disease under field conditions.
To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals.
Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school.
One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9–10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools.
At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0·8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74·4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches).
There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.
To examine the association between breakfast consumption and physical activity in a well-characterised sample of English children.
Cross-sectional study using food diaries to record breakfast consumption and accelerometry to assess physical activity.
Norfolk county, England.
Children (n 1697) aged 9–10 years from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) study.
Boys who consumed a poor-quality breakfast based on dairy product, cereal and fruit intakes spent approximately 7 min more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during weekday afternoons and evenings compared with those who did not consume breakfast (P < 0·05). On weekend days, boys who consumed a poor- or good-quality breakfast spent approximately 6 and 5 min less time respectively being sedentary during the mornings compared with breakfast non-consumers (P < 0·05). Boys who consumed a good-quality breakfast spent almost 3 min more in MVPA during the morning on weekend days compared with non-consumers, and boys who consumed a poor- or good-quality breakfast were 22 % and 16 % more active overall respectively than breakfast non-consumers (P < 0·05). During the rest of the day, boys who consumed a good-quality breakfast spent about 11 min less time being sedentary (P < 0·05) and 7 min more time in MVPA (P < 0·01).
Although some associations between breakfast consumption and physical activity were detected for boys, the present study does not provide strong evidence that failing to consume breakfast, or having a low energy intake at breakfast time, is detrimental to children's physical activity levels.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)
Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) dates on the acid-insoluble fraction from 38 core tops from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, are used to address these questions: (1) What are the apparent ages of sediments at or close to the present sediment/water interface? (2) Is there a statistically significant pattern to the spatial distribution of core top ages? and (3) Is there a “correction factor” that can be applied to these age determinations to obtain the best possible Holocene (downcore) chronologies? Ages of core top sediments range from 2000 to 21,000 14C yr B.P. Some “old” core top dates are from piston cores and probably represent the loss of sediment during the coring process, but some core top samples >6000 14C yr B.P. may represent little or no Holocene deposition. Four possible sources of variability in dates ≤6000 14C yr B.P. (n = 28) are associated with (1) different sample preparation methods, (2) different sediment recovery systems, (3) different geographic regions, and (4) within-sample lateral age variability. Statistical analysis on an a posteriori design indicates that geographic area is the major cause of variability; there is a difference in mean surface sediment age of nearly 2000 yr between sites in the western Ross Sea and sites east of Ross Bank in south-central Ross Sea. The systematic variability in surface age between areas may be attributed to: (a) variable sediment accumulation rates (SAR) (surface age is inversely related to SAR), (b) differences in the percentage of reworked (dead) carbon between each area, and/or (c) differences in the CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere.
We have determined the crystal structures of regioregular HH-TT oligomers with a variety of side chains, including hydroxy-bearing side chains capable of H-bonding. The H-bonding orders the molecular packing into infinite 2-D sheets of Φ-stacks. In these H-bonded sheets, the Φ-stacks are insulated from each other by the aliphatic side chains and form one-dimensional “wires”. In contrast, the structures of similar oligomers that do not have H-bonded side-chains feature a structure in which neighboring Φ-stacks in are in contact (“shorted wires”). The effects of these differing molecular arrangements on the spectral properties and exciton splitting are discussed.
We have developed methods of measuring absorption of transient species utilizing both rapid scan and stepped-scan Fourier transform interferometery that allows a combination of broad spectral coverage (10,000 – 15,000 cm-1 per spectrum), good spectral resolution, and the ability to cover temporal ranges from minutes to nanoseconds. A wide range of pump sources are used including continuous, modulated, ns pulsed, and ultrafast lasers. The probe is provided by a broadband, incoherent source providing large spectral information in each experiment. This capability enables investigation of phenomena such as excited state absorption, charge transfer, formation of metastable species, and others. Extension of the technique to the ps realm is underway and will be discussed.
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