Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates and may cause serious damages to their hosts. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some groups of reptiles such as terrapins. Moreover, the information on virulence from blood parasites mixed infection is largely unknown in reptiles. With this aim, we investigated for the first time the prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites from one genus of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan (Hepatozoon) in two populations of Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa), a semi-aquatic turtle from southwestern Europe with a vulnerable conservation status. We also examined the association between mixed blood parasite infection and indicators of health of terrapins (body condition, haematocrit values and immune response). Blood parasite infection with Hepatozoon spp was detected in 46·4% of 140 examined terrapins. The prevalence of blood parasites infection differed between populations. We found two different lineages of blood parasite, which have not been found in previous studies. Of the turtles with infection, 5·7% harboured mixed infection by the two lineages. There was no difference in body condition between uninfected, single-infected and mixed-infected turtles, but mixed-infected individuals had the lowest values of haematocrit, thus revealing the negative effects of blood parasite mixed infections. Immune response varied among terrapins with different infection status, where mixed infected individuals had higher immune response than uninfected or single-infected terrapins.