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Twenty years ago, at a public ceremony in Amsterdam, a group of European academics made a solemn declaration on the future of the European Union (EU). Eventually over 1000 scholars and policy makers signed the Amsterdam Declaration on the Social Quality of Europe and it was translated into sixteen languages. The main intention behind the declaration was to remind policy makers and citizens about the unique nature of the western European model of development, comprising aspirations for economic growth, competitiveness and social justice. The risk being warned against was that, in the process of Economic and Monetary Union, the politics of integration would neglect what was then labelled the ‘social dimension’ and, among other far-reaching consequences, this would lead to a loss of legitimacy for the whole European project. As the Comité des Sages put it, bluntly, in 1996, ‘Europe will be a Europe for everyone, for all its citizens, or it will be nothing’.
The narrow referendum decision for British exit from the European Union (Brexit), and its explosive political consequences, has become a lens through which decades-long tensions in European society can be viewed. The result, which was expected to be a clear Remain victory, has been interpreted as various combinations of: the unleashing of xenophobic and racist anti-immigrant sentiment; a kick back against disinterested elites by ‘left behind’ people; the fermenting of nationalist populism by political and media actors; a clash of cultural values; a rejection of ‘market is all’ globalisation in favour of national borders; or as a reaction against austerity, inequality and insecurity (Corbett, 2016; Goodwin and Heath, 2016; Hobolt, 2016; Inglehart and Norris, 2016; Kaufmann, 2016; Pettifor, 2016; Room, 2016; Seidler, 2018; Taylor-Gooby, 2017). This British-made shock has parallels in and consequences for wider European society. In the Referendum, the EU became an emblematic representation of the distrusted, remote, technocratic elites, who are said to be responsible for an unbelievably large number of societal ills. Meanwhile across Europe there are varieties of Eurosceptic populism and distrust of elites on both the right and left (Ivaldi et al., 2017).
This article investigates the idea of ‘the social’ in Europe after the UK's EU Referendum vote, with reference to the ‘European social model’. It is argued that the key drivers of the vote outcome did not feature in the referendum campaign but are features of longer running and deeper fractures in both British and wider European society. Especially, the lack of response to societal problems, the downplaying of individual participation, and a crisis in democracy created by an increasingly neoliberal direction within an EU concerned with austerity and social control, contrary to the values of the ‘European social model’ (Walker, 2005). In the absence of action for better ‘social quality’, this overall neoliberal direction has also weakened the progressive and integrative potential of social policy. The result is the regressive nationalist populist backlash against neoliberal technocracy. Instead, we argue that answers to contemporary European challenges must focus on improving social quality and democracy.
This article explores the relationship between Social Quality and income in later life and represents the first application of the concept to a United Kingdom data-set with an explicit focus on older people. In order to undertake this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis models are employed in conjunction with the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). This enables various dimensions or domains of Social Quality to be measured and then subjected to further scrutiny via regression analysis. Initially, the paper explores links between low income, poverty and older people, prior to outlining the concept of Social Quality and its four conditional factors. Following the methodology, the impact of income on Social Quality domains is explored. We identify that differences in income in older age provide a partial explanation of differences in individual Social Quality. While there is a statistically significant relationship between income and certain aspects of Social Quality such as economic security, altruism, social networks and culture/participation, other factors such as health, identity and time did not have a statistically significant relationship with income. This indicates that improvements in the income of older people are likely to positively impact on aspects of their Social Quality. Finally, some policy implications of the finding are outlined with particular reference to the potential role for pensions in enhancing aspects of Social Quality in retirement.
The inclusive development strategy proposed by the Chinese government embraces social inclusion for older people. In line with most developing countries, China's policy on social inclusion for older people focuses almost exclusively on material security in the form of pensions. This paper examines the impact of pensions on social inclusion for older people across four dimensions: family interaction, social support, social participation and self-assessment using data from the 2014 China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey. The results demonstrate that pensions improve dramatically the relationships between older adults and their family members and friends, and therefore their social inclusion in the life world. The exception is social participation which seems to be immune to material income effects. However, the stratified pension system in China generates complex and hierarchical effects on social inclusion among different sub-groups. Social inclusion among older people with high exclusion risks but low pensions is very sensitive to pension levels. Conversely, most pensions are distributed to those with the lowest exclusion risks as a result of the disappearance of their impact on social inclusion. We argue that future social inclusion policies for older people in China should focus first on achieving greater equality in pensions.
This article makes the case for a radical new strategy on ageing which focuses on the whole life course with the intention of preventing many of the chronic conditions associated with old age. The case is built on recent research evidence and the life-course concept of ‘active ageing’ is used to encapsulate the practical measures required. Combining biological and social science insights it is argued that, while ageing is inevitable, it is also plastic. This means that it not only manifests itself in different ways but also that it can be modified by mitigating the various risk factors that drive it. Such action would have considerable potential to reduce the personal costs of chronic conditions such as strokes and those falling on family carers but, also, to cut the associated health and social care expenditures. The question of why such apparently beneficial policy action is not being taken is discussed and a range of barriers are identified. One of these appears to be the UK's extreme brand of neo-liberalism, which militates against the collective approach necessary to implement a social policy for active ageing. Although the case is made with primary reference to UK policy and practice, the call for action to prevent chronic conditions has global relevance.
The ROSAT X-ray satellite mission and its X-ray telescope (XRT) are described by Trümper (1984). The characteristics of the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on ROSAT and its potential for studies of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) are discussed by Harris, Sumner, and Walker (1989, this volume). The energy range covered by the WFC is 0.06 keV to 0.21 keV (60 Å to 200 Å), whilst the XRT covers the higher energy range from 0.2 keV to 2 keV. Observations performed to date in this field have given rise to conflicting evidence on the location and nature of the 106 K gas, which is presumed to be the origin of the observed emission (see references in Harris, Sumner, and Walker, 1989, this volume).
The ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite, due to be launched in early 1990, will carry two separate and complementary grazing-incidence telescopes with co-aligned axes. The German X-ray telescope (XRT) will cover the soft X-ray region in the range 0.15–2 keV (6–80 Å), while the U.K. XUV Wide Field Camera (WFC) will extend coverage to beyond 200 Å. The WFC is a joint project of Leicester and Birmingham Universities, the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, and the authors' institutes. The primary objective of ROSAT is to perform an all-sky survey over a period of six months. This will be followed by a guest-observer, “pointed” phase. We briefly discuss the sensitivity of the WFC to the soft X-ray/XUV background (SXRB) and the problems and techniques associated with distinguishing the astronomical background from other sources of background.
We have measured the relative radial velocity of Arcturus using the HF absorption cell technique on 43 occasions from 1981 through 1985. The range of our velocities is 500 m s-1, which is much larger than our estimated internal errors (typically 10 m s-1). This confirms the radial velocity variability of Arcturus that has been previously reported by our group and others based on shorter observational time spans.
Modern ruminant species have traditionally been placed in three broad dietary categories (browsers, grazers and intermediates) based on their observed feeding habits. Shape analysis of premaxillary outlines of 31 species of ruminants shows that their premaxillae differ according to their dietary category. Browsers have pointed premaxillae and grazers square ones. Intermediate feeders have intermediate outlines.
The Miocene giraffid Samotherium boissieri has always been viewed as a specialized browser similar to the modern okapi, Okapia johnstoni. However, the premaxillary shape of S. boissieri falls very close to the mean of the grazers and is most similar to that of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), a committed grazer.
Quantitative analyses of the microscopic wear patterns on the molars reveal significant differences between three modern species from the three dietary groups. S. boissieri has more microscopic scratches on its teeth than either the modern giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis (a browser) or Grant's gazelle Gazella granti (an intermediate feeder). In this respect, it is indistinguishable from the wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus which is a committed grazer.
Both of these analyses suggest that this extinct giraffid was a grazer, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it was an intermediate feeder. It was definitely not a specialized browser as are both living members of the Giraffidae.
Bone-collecting behavior in the harvester ant, Messor barbarus, has been observed for the first time. Excavation to the depth of the packed substrate of a single ant hill yielded 1167 modern bones derived from nine or more species of small vertebrates. Since harvester ants of various species are well-known from the Americas, Africa, and Eurasia, ants may have served as important agents of concentration for micromammal assemblages in the fossil record. Analysis of the faunal and skeletal representation of the ant hill assemblages reveals characteristic patterns that might be used to distinguish such assemblages from those collected by avian or mammalian predators.
Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis models in conjunction with the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) this paper reports the first application of the concept of Social Quality to a UK data set. Social Quality is concerned with the quality of society, or social relations, and consists of both a theoretical model and an empirically tested set of measures. Social Quality is explored in relation to the policy issues of low pay and the working poor given the challenges presented by the rising number of households in work and in poverty. This analysis reveals several striking characteristics. In terms of poverty per se poor employees are worse off in terms of economic security, housing, health, human capital, trust, voluntarism, citizenship, knowledge and culture whichever part of the employment structure they belong to. However, in addition, even those in the so-called upper level of the labour market (professional, managerial occupations which require reasonably high levels of skill and motivation) are significantly worse off on these dimensions if they are low paid. Therefore it suggests that measures to raise low pay, such as the living wage, are likely to have considerable implications for Social Quality.
The social care system of China has come under close scrutiny from policy makers due to the rapid ageing of China's population. Unfortunately, there is very little Chinese research evidence that might be used to plan future service developments. This article is a contribution to filling that gap and it provides essential new information on the expressed demand among older people in China for various community care services. The data are from the 2008 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. According to the characteristics of the dependent variables, we used Binary Logistic Regression Analysis to analyse the need for community care among older people in China. The results show considerable need for such care, but China is still a developing country and there are insufficient resources to fund a Western-style social care system (even if that was desirable). Thus, it is argued that the development of social care in China should emphasise community-based care, in partnership with families, with institutional care as a last resort. In addition, it is argued that China (and other countries) should introduce measures to prevent the demand for social care.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is underrecognised in clinical
To investigate whether performing a 123I-ioflupane injection
(123I-FP-CIT also called DaTSCANTM) single
photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan in patients with
possible DLB would lead to a more certain diagnosis (probable DLB or
We randomised 187 patients with possible DLB 2:1 to have a scan or not
(control group). The outcome measure was a change in diagnosis to
probable DLB or non-DLB.
There were 56 controls and 114 scanned patients, of whom 43% had an
abnormal scan. More patients in the imaging group had a change in
diagnosis compared with controls at 8 and 24 weeks (61%
(n = 70) v. 4% (n =
2) and 71% (n = 77) v. 16%
(n = 9); both P<0.0001).
Clinicians were more likely to change the diagnosis if the scan was
abnormal (82%) than if it was normal (46%).
Imaging significantly contributed to a more certain diagnosis, proving to
be a useful adjunct in the work-up of patients with possible DLB.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.