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Thermoelectric materials can play an important role to develop a sustainable energy source for internet of things devices near room temperature. In this direction, it is important to have a thermoelectric material with high thermoelectric performance. Cesium tin triiodide (CsSnI3) single crystal perovskite has shown high value of Seebeck coefficient and ultra low thermal conductivity which are necessary conditions for high thermoelectric performance. Here, we report the thermoelectric response of CsSnI3 thin films. These films are prepared by cost effective wet spin coating process at different baking temperature. Films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In our case, films baked at 130°C for 5 min have shown the best thermoelectric performance at room temperature with: Seebeck coefficient 115 μV/K and electrical conductivity 124 S/cm, thermal conductivity 0.36 W/m·K and figure of merit ZT of 0.137.
Lithium substituted magnesium ferrites (LixMg1-xFe2O4, where x = 0.1 to 0.5) were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Various characterization techniques viz. X - Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the effect of lithium substitution. Differences in particle size, crystallinity and magnetic parameters of the ferrites synthesized with difference in composition were observed. XRD patterns of the synthesized samples confirmed phase purity and showed that the lattice parameter decreases with increase in Li content in magnesium ferrite. Decrease in coercivity with increase in lithium concentration was observed from magnetic analysis (VSM). Through FTIR, it was observed that Li+ ions occupy B – sites. FTIR spectrum peaks obtained in the region 1620 – 1670 cm-1 supported water molecule dissociation. It is the required characteristic of the lithium substituted magnesium ferrite to be used in various applications like humidity sensor and hydroelectric cell.
A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo β-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27–41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.
Numerous studies have reported that amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ-42) protein is a high-profile risk factor associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulation of extracellular senile plaques, synaptic degeneration, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles were recorded as essential features that facilitate the onset of Aβ-42, resulting in AD. Hence, we attempted a new screening technique to discover potential inhibitors against Aβ-42 using an in silico deep neural network approach. We screened PubChem compounds library and found wgx-50 as a potential inhibitor of Aβ-42. Also, synergistic effects of wgx-50–gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) complex induced significant inhibition of Aβ-42, compared with those of wgx-50 alone. Further, molecular docking analysis, systems biology approach, and time course simulation confirmed that synergistic effects of wgx-50–AuNPs complex have potential application in the treatment for AD. Additionally, we proposed the biological circuit for AD induced by Aβ-42 that can be used to monitor the effect of drugs on AD.
Hardy’s uncertainty principle for the Gabor transform is proved for locally compact abelian groups having noncompact identity component and groups of the form
is a compact group having irreducible representations of bounded dimension. We also show that Hardy’s theorem fails for a connected nilpotent Lie group
which admits a square integrable irreducible representation. Further, a similar conclusion is made for groups of the form
is a discrete group.
Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
In this study, we use MM5 weather-forecast model output and observed surface weather data from 11 stations in the western Himalaya to develop a statistical downscaling model (SDM) to better predict precipitation, 10 m wind speed and 2 m temperature. The analysis covers three consecutive winters: 2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07. The performance of the SDM was assessed using an independent dataset from the 2007/08 winter season. This assessment shows that the SDM technique substantially improves the forecast over specific station locations, which is important for avalanche-threat assessment.
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for embeddability of an operator system into
. Using Kirchberg’s theorems on a tensor product of
, we establish results on their operator system counterparts
. Applications of the results, including some examples describing
-envelopes of operator systems, are also discussed.
Background: Ross syndrome is diagnosed by the presence of segmental anhidrosis, areflexia, and tonic pupils. Fewer than 60 cases have been described in literature so far. There have been reports of presence of antibodies in such patients, suggesting an autoimmune pathogenesis. Methods: We describe the clinical profile in this case series of 11 patients with Ross syndrome and discuss the current status of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis and the management. Results: Of the 11 patients with Ross syndrome there was an almost equal sex distribution (male:female ratio was 1.17:1) and the mean age of onset of symptoms was 26 years. Patients took an average of 6 years to present to a tertiary center. Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with complaints of excessive sweating, whereas only 27% had complaints of decreased sweating over a particular area of the body. Only 45% of the patients had the complete triad of Ross syndrome, which included segmental anhidrosis, tonic pupil, and absent reflexes. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had documented absent sympathetic skin response on electromyography. The various markers of autoimmunity were negative in all patients who were investigated for the same in this series. Ninety percent of the patients were managed conservatively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in Ross syndrome, generalized injury to ganglion cells or their projections are not purely autoimmune-mediated.
We report a cost-effective, surfactant-free, and scalable synthesis technique for lead telluride (PbTe) nanocubes by a chemical precipitation method. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies indicated the evolution of nucleation centers (spherical) into nanocubes with the addition of the Pb and Te atoms. The spark plasma sintered PbTe nanocubes exhibited an enhanced Seebeck coefficient, S > +400 µV, higher than the reported values of the bulk PbTe over an extended temperature range of 300–425 K, and a moderate electrical conductivity, σ ∼ 8000 S/m at 300 K. A significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity was observed due to effective phonon scattering from the presence of numerous interfaces introduced by nanostructuring. The resulting figure-of-merit (ZT) ∼ 0.45 at 300 K is higher than the reported values at this temperature in other PbTe nanostructures. Moreover, a moderate thermoelectric compatibility factor makes the PbTe nanocubes a potential candidate for green energy generation.
Recent research in nanobioelectronic devices has opened up a new wave of
enthusiasm in revolutionizing electronic circuit design, marking the
beginning of a new era for biomimicry phenomena to advance into high-density
logic and memory applications. This chapter describes the formation and
development of a protein-based biomemory device composed of recombinant
protein variants, together with some experimental results on protein film
formation with various readout mechanisms for constructing future memory
devices. To elucidate the concept of the memory device, a redox protein in
which cysteine residues were incorporated by recombinant technology was
immobilized on a gold electrode surface. Application of the correct
potentials then causes carrier trapping or detrapping in protein films to
occur, as shown by the electrochemical measurements, thus performing the
memory function. The chapter also summarizes recent research on nanoscale
biomemory devices, considering first the basic nature of the
write-once-read-many (WORM) characteristics. The concept of WORM is then
extended to multi-bit storage of protein variants and towards development of
a nanoscale biomemory device. The fact that these developed devices,
operating at very low voltages, can be patterned and addressed locally, and
also have good stability with excellent reversibility, makes them a
promising platform for non-volatile memory devices.
The present study was conducted to determine the elemental concentration and bacterial presence in the ocean on the two sides of Brøggerhalvøya, a peninsula in Svalbard. Sediments from 25 different locations were collected and subjected to elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In total, 21 elements were analysed. The elements in their decreasing order of concentrations on the Kongsfjorden side of Brøggerhalvøya were Fe> Mn> Ba > V > Zn > Sr > Rb > Cr > Li > Ni > As > Pb > Cu > Co > Cs >Ag > Be > U> Bi >Tl > Cd while that for Forlandsendet side of Brøggerhalvøya they were Fe > Ba >Mn > V> Sr > Zn > Rb > Cr > Li > Ni > Pb > Cu > As > Co > Cs > Be > U> Tl > Bi > Cd. On the other hand, at a coastal outcrop, elements in their decreasing order of concentration were Fe > Mn > Cr > Sr > Ba > Rb > Cr > Zn > V > Rb > Ni > Li > Co > Cu > As > Pb > Cs > Be > Cd > Tl > U > Bi. AMS dates confirmed the age of outcrop sediment to be 12,496 to 42,500 BP. The crustal enrichment factor calculated for all the elements with reference to Fe values, demonstrates that the elements have derived from a crustal source. Total bacterial counts ranged from 3.30 × 105 to 3.02 × 106 per gm soil sediment. Culturable bacterial counts in these sediments were between 2.00 × 102 to 2.09 × 105 CFU's per gm. Overall comparison showed high Fe and Mn concentrations around Brøggerhalvøya, due to the presence of specific bacteria which play key roles in metal cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations.
In this paper, we propose a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem whose
parameters in the objective functions and constraints vary in between some lower and upper
bounds. Existence of the efficient solution of this model is studied and gradient based as
well as gradient free optimality conditions are derived. The theoretical developments are
illustrated through numerical examples.
Priyankar Upadhyaya, UNESCO Professor and Director at Malaviya Centre for Peace Research, Banaras Hindu University, India,Samrat Schmiem Kumar, Research Fellow at the Department of Cultural Studies and Oriental Languages, University of Oslo, Norway
South Asian discourses on peace can draw much from Gandhian visions. His comprehensive approach to peace reflected in his oft-cited statement, ‘Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed’, reveals a unique synergy between peace and sustainable development. Peace for Gandhi was not just the absence of war or violence, but also a pathway to expand human potential without hurting others in the community or in the larger ecosystem. No wonder Gandhi continues to influence the global thought process despite political and cultural transformations. Numerous thinkers and activists across the world swear by Gandhi's philosophy, and no global dialogue on peace can progress without reference to his ideas. Amidst the current global crises marked by a rising scale of violence, a worsening ecological crisis, terrorism and discriminatory patterns of globalization, Gandhian expressions on peace and sustainability assume critical salience.
Gandhi envisioned a holistic yet critical vision of peace that rejected violence in its entirety. He not only abhorred wars and killing under any guise, but also addressed the insidious ramifications of ‘structural violence’, embedded in structures and cultures. His disavowal of violence amidst the gravest of provocations makes him the most inveterate proponent of nonviolent methods to achieved peace. He firmly believed that positive peace could be brought about only by peaceful means and never by non-peaceful means (Galtung 1996). He believed that the modern state based on force is incapable of dealing with the forces of disorder, whether external or internal. Gandhi’s vision has inspired multiple streams of pedagogy and new thinking around such areas as sustainable development, human security and structural violence.
We prove that, for operator spaces V and W, the operator space V** ⊗hW** can be completely isometrically embedded into (V ⊗hW)**, ⊗h being the Haagerup tensor product. We also show that, for exact operator spaces V and W, a jointly completely bounded bilinear form on V × W can be extended uniquely to a separately w*-continuous jointly completely bounded bilinear form on V× W**. This paves the way to obtaining a canonical embedding of into with a continuous inverse, where is the operator space projective tensor product. Further, for C*-algebras A and B, we study the (closed) ideal structure of which, in particular, determines the lattice of closed ideals of completely.
The present study was conducted to measure the elemental concentration and bacterial deposition in the firn-cores at the Midre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard. Firn-cores up to 1m deep were collected and divided into three subsections. These were subjected to elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS). In all 20 elements were analysed. The crustal enrichment factors calculated for these elements on the basis of Fe values, demonstrate that the elements have derived from both crustal and anthropogenic sources. For certain elements there also exists a possibility of input from sea salt spray. Total bacterial counts in these firn samples ranged from 1.03 × 105 to 3.67 × 105 per ml of meltwater. Culturability of these bacterial cells, in comparison to the total count was very low. At 4°C the maximum culturability was <1.4% of the total count while at 15°C it was still lower (~1%).
The development of laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and specimen preparation techniques using a focused ion beam equipped with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has significantly advanced the characterization of semiconductor devices by APT. The capability of APT to map out elements in devices at the atomic scale with high sensitivity meets the characterization requirements of semiconductor devices such as the determination of elemental distributions for each device region.