Background: Central neuropathic pain syndromes are a result of central nervous system injury, most commonly related to stroke, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis. These syndromes are much less common than peripheral etiologies, with less known regarding optimal treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of central relative to peripheral neuropathic pain at tertiary pain centers. Methods: Patients diagnosed with central (n=79) and peripheral (n=710) neuropathic pain were identified from a prospective observational cohort from seven Canadian tertiary centers. Data regarding patient -characteristics, analgesic use, and patient-reported outcomes were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the composite of reduced average pain intensity and pain interference. Secondary outcomes included assessments of function, mood, and quality-of-life. Results: At 12-month follow-up, 13.5% (95%CI,5.6-25.8) of patients achieved ≥30% reduction in pain, whereas 38.5% (95%CI,25.3-53.0) achieved a ≥1 point reduction in pain interference; 9.6% (95%CI,3.2-21.0) of patients achieving both these measures. Patients with peripheral neuropathic pain were more likely to achieve this primary outcome at 12-months (25.3% of patients; 95%CI,21.4-29.5) (p=.012). Conclusions: Patients with central neuropathic pain were less likely to achieve a meaningful improvement in pain and function compared to patients with peripheral neuropathic pain at 12-month follow-up.