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Case-Finding for Complex Chronic Conditions in Seniors 75+ (C5-75) is a systematic approach to identify frailty using gait speed and hand-grip strength and to screen for co-morbid conditions. We identified the C5-75 features offering the highest yield for identifying frailty and to streamline the screening program. Analyses included 1,948 C5-75 assessments completed from 2013 to 2018. Age 85 or older, less than regular physical activity, and more than two falls in the previous six months had the strongest associations with frailty. Exempting patients under 85 who reported regular physical activity and less than two falls excluded 39.1 per cent of the cohort while maintaining a sensitivity of 95.2 per cent and a negative predictive value of 99.4 per cent for frailty. These findings provide insight into optimizing screening for frailty, making it more feasible to implement and to identify co-existing conditions that may contribute to or be affected by frailty.
Issues in traditional cross-section sampling of paintings and other cultural artifacts with a scalpel, such as crumbling, delamination and paint compression, can deter conservators from sampling fragile paint layers. Often, such sampling carries the risk of causing further damage from a scalpel, which outweighs the benefits of scientific investigation. Here, we show that femtosecond lasers offer a viable alternative to obtaining cross-sections with minimal damage to the surrounding artwork. A Regenerative Ti:Sapphire amplifier system with a pulse duration of 70 femtoseconds, a few milliwatts of average power and a repetition rate of 1 kHz (1000 pulses/sec) was used for the study. Tests were performed on oil paintings ranging in age from the 19th century to late 20th century. Effective settings were determined to be 2 mW of power at a speed of 10mm/sec using an 800nm laser. Preliminary results suggest femtosecond lasers could be a viable alternative for obtaining paint cross-sections when traditional sampling methods cause unnecessary damage to fragile materials.
One consequence of “high stakes testing” in Tuscaloosa area schools has been exclusion of materials science faculty from any meaningful participation in middle and high school classrooms. Beyond the loss of resources from the classroom that Materials Science faculty and their students represent, this also has negative consequences for faculty wanting to build ties to schools to address NSF’s “broader impact” criteria. A group of STEM and Education faculty at The University of Alabama have been testing a team based approach designed to overcome the systemic constraints that prevent effective STEM/K-12 collaboration. Teams consisting of a high school teacher, a STEM faculty member, and a STEM graduate student have spent three weeks during summer 2010 to identify/develop and implement an inquiry based science experiments. The experiments are being tested on science campers at McWane Science Center prior to being assessed in the teachers’ classrooms during the fall semester. The experiments were chosen by each team and represent significant advances over those currently available in the schools. By setting a problem that no team member is able to solve alone an environment was produced where success requires meaningful collaboration. Preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates deeper understanding of the school environment by the STEM faculty and greater respect for the skills teachers bring to this endeavor. Successes in this pilot program have generated credibility with the local school district, opening the door to scaling up the project, and developing further positive ties. Incorporation of lead teachers from Alabama Science in Motion also allows the experiments developed to be widely disseminated throughout Alabama, as well as providing a mechanism to identify existing experiments to enhance.
Classical Be stars are rapidly rotating, hot stars that possess an equatorial disk formed from gas released by the central star. The mechanism driving the stellar mass loss has yet to be fully explained, but the rapid rotation of the central B star is believed to be crucial. Rapid rotation also produces gravity darkening, and we have now extended our disk models to include these effects. In this contribution, we focus on the effect of gravity darkening on the thermal structure of a circumstellar disk.
Hα high resolution spectroscopy combined with detailed numerical models is used to probe the physical conditions, such as density, temperature, and velocity of Be star disks. Models have been constructed for Be stars over a range in spectral types and inclination angles. We find that a variety of line shapes can be obtained by keeping the inclination fixed and changing density alone. This is due to the fact that our models account for disk temperature distributions self-consistently from the requirement of radiative equilibrium. A new analytical tool, called the variability ratio, was developed to identify emission-line stars at particular stages of variability. It is used in this work to quantify changes in the Hα equivalent widths for our observed spectra.
In order to understand the mechanisms that govern the development of circumstellar disks surrounding classical Be stars, we use computational codes to create theoretical models of these particular objects with their gaseous environments and we compare the predicted observables to astronomical observations. In this study, we present the use of the non-LTE radiative transfer code of Sigut & Jones (2007) to examine the effect of a self-consistent thermal structure and realistic chemical composition on the polarization of the classical Be star γ Cassiopeia. Primarily, we investigate the effect of several improvements on the pioneering work of Poeckert & Marlborough (1978) in calculating the polarization levels of γ Cas. We establish best-fit models for the same observations and analyze the implications of the differences between our results and those obtained by Poeckert & Marlborough.
Darwin (1872) contended that emotions are primary regulators of social interaction and that interspecies communication of emotion is innate and has adaptive value. Within this framework, empathy, which involves recognizing emotions and adjusting social interactions accordingly, would provide individuals and groups who possess this ability with an evolutionary advantage.
Several contemporary theoretical papers have also emerged in the psychological literature that discuss the evolution of empathy and its neural substrates. For example, Brothers (1989) introduced an evolutionary theory of empathy, defining the concept of empathy across maturational levels. He and others (Hoffman, 2000; Trevarthen & Aitken, 1994) argue that empathy is an innate biologically based process in more evolved species. Empathy's evolution in phylogeny and ontogeny is based on the need for more evolved species to be able to communicate with important others, such as caretakers and attachment figures. While the theoretical models proposed differ in the exact mechanism impelling the development of empathy, they agree that variation between individuals in levels of empathic processing derives from evolved variation in genetic endowments and is modified by environmental experiences. Ultimately these theories recognize that empathy, a key component of social communication during development, is adaptive, promotes survival and has a neurological basis.
To properly address the concept of empathy during infancy, developmental theorists must first define empathy, keeping in mind the resources of infants. Rather most theorists focus on the limitations when referring to empathy during infancy. For example, normal functioning infants have been described as dysregulated, less-than-conscious, egocentric and too immature in their representational and self-other capacities to experience empathy (Eisenberg, 1989; Kiang et al., 2004; Strayer, 1987). It is disheartening to think that newborns must be considered inept, rather than simply developing or evolving. Further these definitions indicate an insufficient understanding of infancy and the way that the brain forms during development.
Intuitively it is assumed that emotions are ubiquitous during infancy (Fox, 1991). While it is obvious that newborns do not have the cognitive and experiential abilities required for fully developed forms of empathy, human beings are equipped to function emotionally from birth and emotionality is a key component of evolving empathy.
Studies have shown that newborns can imitate, discriminate and display many of the primary emotions (Field et al., 1982). Findings from these studies suggest that individuals are born with the dispositional tendency to be alerted by emotion signals and that individual infants differentially respond to these signals (Jones et al., 1997b). Brothers (1989) has even suggested that newborn imitation of emotions is a signal for the capacity for empathy (in some precursor form) in the normal brain, one that is elaborated by cognitive maturation and social experiences.
Recent evidence suggests that changes in brain structure associated
with alcohol abuse are compounded in individuals dually diagnosed with
alcohol abuse and schizophrenia. To investigate the separate, and possibly
interacting, effects of these diagnoses, an event-related brain potential
(ERP) measure of auditory information processing (P50 sensory gating
paradigm) and neuropsychological measures were administered to healthy
control participants with either (1a) no history of alcohol
abuse/dependence, or (1b) a remote history of alcohol
abuse/dependence, and patients with schizophrenia with either (2a) no
history of alcohol abuse/dependence, or (2b) a remote history of
alcohol abuse/dependence. Schizophrenia was associated with impaired
P50 sensory gating and poorer performance across neuropsychological scores
compared to measurements in healthy control participants. Those with a
positive alcohol history had impaired gating ratios in contrast to those
with a negative alcohol history. There were additive effects of
schizophrenia diagnosis and alcohol history for P50 sensory gating and for
neuropsychological scores: attention, working memory, and behavioral
inhibition. For executive attention and general memory there was an
interaction, suggesting that the combination of schizophrenia and history
of alcohol abuse results in greater impairment than that predicted by the
presence of either diagnosis alone. (JINS, 2006, 12,
Recent years have seen increasing interest in the experience of prehistoric monuments. This article explores the possibility that the construction and experience of early Neolithic chambered cairns in South Wales was grounded in principles of asymmetry and sidedness. This was reflected in their landscape setting, architecture, and was actively drawn on through time in patterns of structured deposition. Ultimately, we conclude that the differences between symmetry and asymmetry may have played an integral role in the conception of place in the British Neolithic.
The ion implantation of boron remains the most practical means of forming shallow and ultra-shallow p+/n junctions in silicon. A high conductive junction requires both a large density of dopant atoms and electrical activation amongst these. While it is possible to simply higher doses of boron at lower energies, the potential benefits of the changes are often muted by the electrical deactivation of the boron was occurs through a clustering process. Therefore, it is important to do understanding of the kinetics and transients involved in these proces.
It has been shown that ion implanted boron clusters with interst residual from the implantation process. These clusters are immobile, fractionally or totally electrically inactive, and very thermally state study a series of experiments were conducted in order to investigate processes. In addition to this, a means of utilizing X-ray Diffractio to correlate electrical activity to the rocking curve has been development
Hysteresis effect of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films for gate dielectric application has been studied. It is found that the “counterclockwise” hysteresis has strong sweep voltage and operating temperature dependence. It can be reduced or eliminated by proper thermal annealing or by using a barrier layer. A charge trapping and detrapping mechanism has been proposed.
Previous research has documented differences in the pattern of EEG activation between
3-month-old infants of depressed mothers and infants of nondepressed mothers. In the present
study, EEG was recorded in even younger 1-month-old infants of depressed and nondepressed
mothers. The infants of depressed mothers exhibited greater relative right frontal EEG
asymmetry (due to reduced left frontal activation), and this pattern at 1 month was significantly
related to 3-month EEG asymmetry. Right frontal EEG asymmetry was also related to more
frequent negative facial expressions (sad and pre-cry faces) during the Brazelton exam. Finally,
the infants of depressed mothers showed more indeterminate sleep, were less active, and cried
less than infants of nondepressed mothers.
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