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Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Swine cysticercosis results in economic losses for pig farmers in disease endemic areas. Consumption of cysticercotic pork leads to taeniasis in humans. Eggs excreted in the faeces of T. solium carriers disseminate to humans and pigs through the faecal–oral route, thus maintaining the life cycle in endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed using whole crude T. solium cysticercus antigens (WCA) for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. Sera from 30 swine with cysticercosis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging were subjected to EITB assay. Sera from 50 swine that were raised in a government farm and not allowed to roam freely were included as negative controls. Two or more bands of 8, 11, 14, 24, 26 and 29 kDa were immunoreactive on blot with sera from all infected swine except two, and none from swine raised on the government farm. The overall sensitivity and specificity of EITB assay for diagnosis of swine cysticercosis were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. Hence, EITB assay based on WCA may be a suitable diagnostic tool for swine cysticercosis in endemic areas.
Spectroscopic diagnostics for the N III ion have been studied using an atomic model comprising of the first eleven energy levels. We have taken account of the various populating and depopulating mechanisms to solve the detailed balance equations to determine the level populations as a function of electron density and temperature. We then studied the line emissivity ratios as tools for density and temperature diagnostics. Density-sensitive and temperature-sensitive line emissivity ratios have been presented and their diagnostic applications to the solar atmosphere have been discussed with the help of available observations.
Populations of the six equine breeds registered by the Indian National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources have drastically decreased due to indiscriminate breeding and their low utilization. In this study, 15 biometric indices along with typical breed characteristics were recorded for 50 animals of each breed except Bhutia breed (35) for their phenotypic characterization. On the basis of their heights at wither, Kathiawari and Marwari breeds were grouped under “horse”, while Zanskari, Manipuri, Bhutia and Spiti fell under “pony” breeds. Marwari was the tallest and significantly different from other breeds in most of the biometric indices. Spiti was the shortest breed among all the six horse and pony breeds. Sex-wise differences were also observed in some of the biometric indices in different breeds. In Marwari and Kathiawari breeds, both stallions and mares can rotate their ears at an angle of 180° making the ear tips meet in the centre, which is a typical characteristic of the two breeds. This report aims at providing reference data for identification and comparison of different breeds of equines in India with a view to raise awareness among animal geneticists and breeders for production of true to breed animals, conservation and better management of these precious genetic resources.
India has witnessed many major infectious public health emergencies (PHE) during 21st century. They include outbreaks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 2002–03, avian flu in 2006, chikungunya in 2006–07, and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Periodic dengue and Japanese Encephalitis epidemics also are common. The premier institute of the country, PGIMER Chandigarh, always has received a huge inflow of patients from North India during such emergencies. These patients pose special challenges to hospital administration in terms of effective and efficient management of crisis situation, and require special measures. The authors' experience has shown that the major challenges faced are allocation of scares resources, capacity building, motivation of employees, infection control, and inter-sectoral coordination. The response during the initial phase is erratic due to a lack of clear guidelines and prior preparedness. Learning from these experiences, a contingency plan was prepared after consultation with all stakeholders. It was implemented during 2009 influenza pandemic. The contingency plan identifies: (1) area responsibilities; (2) disaster and screening areas for the handling of patients; (3) isolation and critical care facilities; (4) deployment of manpower; (5) allocation of drugs, consumables, equipment, and sterile supplies; (6) communication and reporting system; (7) awareness, education, and training; and (8) decision-making hierarchy and effective inter-sectoral collaboration. Also, a disaster plan has been prepared that includes standard operating procedures (SOPs) to be followed during infectious PHEs. A hospital infection control manual also has been prepared to address the issue of hospital acquired infections. The contingency plan and SOPs were effective during recent 2009 influenza pandemic in streamlining the response.
A well-documented contingency plan prepared in consultation with concerned stakeholders and implemented by a motivated and committed administration is essential in ensuring uninterrupted services during PHEs. It emphasizes that sound PHE plan is never an accident; it is always a result of high intentions, sincere efforts, intelligent direction, and skillful execution.
Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating was applied to Late Quaternary sediments at two sites in the Middle Son Valley, Madhya Pradesh, India. Designated Bamburi 1 and Patpara, these sites contain Late Acheulean stone tool assemblages, which we associate with non-modern hominins. Age determinations of 140–120 ka place the formation of these sites at around the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6–5 transition, placing them among the youngest Acheulean sites in the world. We present here the geochronology and sedimentological setting of these sites, and consider potential implications of Late Pleistocene archaic habitation in north-central India for the initial dispersal of modern humans across South Asia.
Affordable, high quality SiC wafers are very desirable for a variety of new technologies including GaN based lighting, RF, and high-power electronics based on wide band gap materials. At Litton Airtron we have a major effort in the growth and characterization of SiC. We will present data on 35, 50 and 75-mm diameter crystals. We are growing both n-type, semiinsulating 4H, 6H, and 15R material. A variety of characterization techniques are being used at Litton Airtron to determine wafer quality. These include Raman microscopy, digital wafer photography, and crossed polarizer images. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent probe of polytype and carrier concentration for n-type materials; in addition it can be done at room temperature and is sufficiently fast that it can be used in an industrial environment. The use of digital photography allows for the collection of images that can be quantitatively analyzed and archived.
Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was evaluated for evoking an effective immune response in mice and rabbits, when delivered as a DNA vaccine in muscle cells. Polyethylenimine (PEI), 25 kDa, branched cationic polymer was used as a delivery vehicle for this DNA in the muscle cells of mice and rabbits. Naked DNA evoked mixed Th1 and Th2 responses in mice. PEI condensed DNA, at amine nitrogen over DNA phosphate (N/P) ratios of 4, 6 and 8 and with various DNA concentrations, failed to evoke a significantly higher antibody response compared to naked DNA in mice. Similarly, the humoral immune response to naked DNA administration in rabbit thigh muscles was poor and no boosting of this antibody response on administration of DNA complexed to PEI was observed. On metacercarial challenge, rabbits failed to show any significant protective immune response in both the naked DNA and PEI–DNA immunized groups. Administration of PEI alone (12.5 μg) in mouse thigh muscles caused significant muscle cytotoxicity but condensation of DNA with PEI had less of a toxic effect on muscle cells, which was inversely related to the N/P ratio. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding F. gigantica FABP by high molecular weight polyethylenimine (branched, 25 kDa) did not boost the effective immune response in both the animal species, which could either be attributed to cytotoxicity associated with this cationic polymer or muscle cells being unsuitable target cells for PEI condensed DNA delivery.
We report the synthesis of Th1–xMnxO2 (x = 0, 0.001, 0.002, 0.004, and 0.01 wt%) nanoparticles by the urea combustion method using thorium nitrate gel followed by heat treatment at a higher temperature (T). The obtained Th1–xMnxO2 nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), direct-current magnetization (M) measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD analysis revealed that Th1–xMnxO2 crystallizes in the cubic structure (Fm3m). M measurements showed ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature for Th0.99Mn0.01O2 samples annealed at 775 K. An intense and broad ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) having linewidth of ∼1200 G, was observed at relatively lower fields in the EPR spectra of Th0.99Mn0.01O2 samples annealed at 775 K, indicating the presence of a ferromagnetic phase at room temperature. EPR measurements were used to estimate the number of spins involved in the ferromagnetic ordering. Out of the total Mn present in Th0.99Mn0.01O2 samples, about 25% of the Mn2+ ions were found to be responsible for the ferromagnetic ordering. In addition to the FMR signal, a weak hyperfine sextet was observed at g = 2.0048 (55Mn, I = 5/2), which corresponds to the −1/2 ↔ +1/2 transition of Mn2+ ions, suggesting its presence at thorium sites (uncoupled spins). X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated that the manganese ions exist mainly as Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+. The room-temperature ferromagnetism may be attributed to the coupling between these Mn2+ ions at thorium sites in ThO2 rather than due to the formation of any metastable secondary phases.
A large amplitude Trivelpiece–Gould (TG) mode, in a strongly
magnetized beam–plasma system, parametrically couples to a beam
space charge mode and a TG mode sideband. The density perturbation
associated with the beam mode couples with the electron oscillatory
velocity, due to the pump wave, to produce a nonlinear current, driving
the sideband. The pump and the sideband waves exert a ponderomotive
force on the electrons with a component parallel to the ambient
magnetic field, driving the beam mode. For a pump wave having
< 0, where ω0, k0 are the
frequency and the wave number of the pump, and
v0b0 is the beam velocity, the
sideband is frequency upshifted. At low beam density (Compton regime)
the growth rate of the parametric instability scales as two-thirds
power of the pump amplitude, and one-third power of beam density. In
the Raman regime, the growth rate scales as half power of beam density
and linearly with pump amplitude. The background plasma has a
destabilizing role on the instability.
This discussion paper was produced by a Working Party in April 1997 to put forward some possible ways of improving the United Kingdom financial regulatory process. It was written to contribute to the expected post General Election debate on this topic. Although the new Government announced plans in May 1997 for a new Securities and Investment Board (SIB) with statutory powers, this has not reduced the value of this discussion paper which raises some wider issues on methods of regulation.
The paper excludes the supervision and regulation of banks, building societies, insurance companies and exchanges and concentrates on areas that directly affect the public on an ongoing basis. It looks at the expectations of the main parties involved in regulation, the theory and practice of regulation, opportunities and concerns, and concludes with a summary of key issues for discussion. The thrust of the paper is that self regulation should be replaced by statutory regulation and that the present ‘prescriptive’ regulatory process should be replaced by one based on ‘outcomes’ supported by guidance.
Thick films of Bi–Sr–Ca–Cu–O on (100) MgO substrates have been prepared by the screen printing technique with the starting composition of 1112. The annealing process involves a two-step heat treatment. The first-step temperature is chosen between 874 °C and 898 °C for 45 min followed by slow cooling (2 °C/min) to 864 °C. In the second step, the films are kept at 864 °C for a time varying from 0 to 104 h. The Tc (R = 0) and intensity of the characteristic peaks of the high Tc and the low Tc phases in the x-ray diffraction pattern are found to be dependent on the first-step temperature and the duration of the second step. The process of crystallization and the growth of plate-like grains as a function of annealing time at the second step are studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Kinetics of the growth of the high Tc phase has been explained in terms of a reaction mechanism involving the first and second annealing steps.
Let G be a nondiscrete locally compact abelian group with dual group Γ. For 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞, denote by Ap(G) the space of integrable functions on G whose Fourier transforms belong to Lp(Γ). We investigate multipliers from Ap(G) to Aq(G). If G is compact and 2 < p1, p2 < ∞, we show that multipliers of and multipliers of are different, provided Pl ≠ P2. For compact G, we also exhibit a relationship between lr (Γ) and the multipliers from Ap(G) to Aq(G). If G is a compact nonabelian group we observe that the spaces Ap(G) behave in the same way as in the abelian case as far as the multiplier problems are concerned.
Let G be a locally compact abelian group and Ĝ be its dual group. For 1 ≤ p < ∞, let Ap (G) denote the set of all those functions in L1(G) whose Fourier transforms belong to Lp (Ĝ). Let M(Ap (G)) denote the set of all functions φ belonging to L∞(Ĝ) such that is Fourier transform of an L1-function on G whenever f belongs to Ap (G). For 1 ≤ p < q < ∞, we prove that Ap (G) Aq(G) provided G is nondiscrete. As an application of this result we prove that if G is an infinite compact abelian group and 1 ≤ p ≤ 4 then lp (Ĝ) M(Ap(G)), and if p > 4 then there exists ψ є lp (Ĝ) such that ψ does not belong to M(Ap (G)).
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