The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its big economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of its natural populations. Knowledge about an insect pest on molecular, genetic and population levels facilitates the development of environmentally friendly control methods. In this study, we present the development of 13 microsatellite markers for R. cerasi, through cross-species amplification. These markers have been used for the genotyping of 130 individuals from five different sampling sites in Greece. Our results indicate that (i) cross-species amplification is a versatile and rapid tool for developing microsatellite markers in Rhagoletis spp., (ii) the microsatellite markers presented here constitute an important tool for population studies on this pest, and (iii) there is clear structuring of natural European cherry fly populations.