Our findings dispel the commonly held belief that the EEG always worsens progressively in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In a continuing cohort analytical study of dementia, 139 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 148 controls were studied for EEG abnormalities and progression. EEGs were read without knowledge of the previous EEGs or clinical condition, and classified according to the presence of diffuse delta or theta, bisynchronousspikes, projected activity, and focal activity. EEGs were significantly different in the two groups. EEG scores generally worsened over 1-4 years, but most of the subjects showed no alteration in their EEG scores. A few patients with Alzheimer's disease showed improvement of EEG findings.