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Limbic-cortical imbalance is an established model for the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), but imaging genetics studies have been contradicting regarding potential risk and resilience mechanisms. Here, we re-assessed previously reported limbic-cortical alterations between MDD relatives and controls in combination with a newly acquired sample of MDD patients and controls, to disentangle pathology, risk, and resilience.
We analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data and negative affectivity (NA) of MDD patients (n = 48), unaffected first-degree relatives of MDD patients (n = 49) and controls (n = 109) who performed a faces matching task. Brain response and task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity (FC) were compared between groups and assessed for associations with NA.
Groups did not differ in task-related brain activation but activation in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was inversely correlated with NA in patients and controls. Pathology was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala FC with regions of the default mode network (DMN) and decreased amygdala FC with the medial frontal gyrus during faces matching, potentially reflecting a task-independent DMN predominance and a limbic-cortical disintegration during faces processing in MDD. Risk was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala-FC with fronto-parietal regions and reduced faces-associated amygdala-fusiform gyrus FC. Resilience corresponded to task-independent increases in amygdala FC with the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and increased FC between amygdala, pgACC, and SFG during faces matching.
Our results encourage a refinement of the limbic-cortical imbalance model of depression. The validity of proposed risk and resilience markers needs to be tested in prospective studies. Further limitations are discussed.
Smoking is purported to increase the risk of peritonsillar abscess formation, but prospective data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. This prospective study aimed to identify this correlation.
Fifty-four patients with peritonsillar abscess were prospectively asked about their smoking behaviour using a questionnaire that was designed and approved by the Robert Koch Institute (Berlin, Germany) to analyse smoking behaviour in epidemiological studies. Afterwards, a consecutive control group (without peritonsillar abscess), matched in terms of age and gender, was surveyed using the same questionnaire. A classification of smoker, former smoker and non-smoker was made, and the numbers of pack-years were calculated and compared.
Statistical analysis of both groups revealed a significant correlation between peritonsillar abscess and smoking experience (p = 0.025). Moreover, there were significantly fewer non-smokers in the non-peritonsillar abscess group (p = 0.04). The number of pack-years was higher in the peritonsillar abscess group (p = 0.037).
There is a statistically significant association between peritonsillar abscess and smoking.
The eclipsing supersoft X-ray binary CAL 87 has been observed with Chandra on August 13/14, 2001 for nearly 100 ksec, covering two full orbital cycles and three eclipses. The shape of the eclipse light curve derived from the zeroth-order photons indicates that the size of the X-ray emission region is about 1.5 R⊙. The ACIS/LETG spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines without any noticeable continuum. The brightest emission lines are significantly redshifted and double-peaked, suggestive of emanating in a 2000 km/s wind. We model the X-ray spectrum by a mixture of recombination and resonant scattering. This allows us to deduce the temperature and luminosity of the ionizing source to be kT ~ 50 — 100 eV and Lx ~ 5 x 1037 erg/s.
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h. Mean daily growth rates of identified antral follicles were less (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated than in control sows (1.08±0.17 v.1.23±0.18 mm/day; mean±SD) and treated animals exceeded (P<0.05) controls in the mean ovulation rate (13.7±1.3 v. 12.6±1.2). A transient suppression of cortisol release was observed in the treatment group (at 10 and 30 min after azaperone injections) but circulating cortisol concentrations were variable in both groups of sows for the remainder of the study. The preovulatory rise in LH and estradiol secretion was delayed (P<0.05), and the duration of the LH surge was greater (P<0.001) in azaperone-treated sows compared with their control counterparts. The amplitude of episodic fluctuations in serum cortisol concentrations was correlated with the number of stillborn piglets in control sows (r=0.63, P=0.04). The amplitude and concentration of the preovulatory rise in estradiol secretion were negatively correlated with ovulatory response and litter size (r=−0.63 to −0.82, P<0.05), whereas the time at which the LH surge ended was directly related to the number of live-born piglets (r=0.82, P=0.002) in azaperone-treated animals. The present results indicate that administration of azaperone at weaning had a profound effect on preovulatory LH secretion as well as growth kinetics and estrogenicity of ovarian antral follicles. However, the causative associations among various characteristics of the preovulatory LH discharge, ovarian and adrenal steroid secretion post-weaning, and reproductive variables in sows remain equivocal.
The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (P<0.10) for both species. In contrast, average daily gain (ADG) (1277 g/day for T2 and 1267 g/day for T3 v. 971 g/day for T1) was only altered in pigs. The hydrothermic maize processing increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, starch and ether extract after acid hydrolysis. This may be a consequence of higher ATTD of gross energy in the finishing phase for both animal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (P<0.10) for broilers, likely due to the heat damage of xanthophylls and tocopherols. Processing also increased springiness and chewiness (P<0.10) of the broilers breast meat, whereas the loin meat of pigs showed a decreased lightness and yellowness (P<0.10) in meat when hydrothermic processed maize was used (for T2, T3 and T4). LC processed maize (T3) showed the lowest springiness in pork, however the supplementation of AA in T4 did not show differences between the treatments. Shown results demonstrated positive effects of hydrothermic processing of maize on animal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.
A large set of narrow-band images of planetary nebulae (PNe) have been studied together with the location of their nuclei (PNNi) on the logTeff – logL/L⊙ plane, in order to disclose possible correlations between the morphological class of the PNe and the evolutionary stage of their PNNi.
The radio source Sgr A has been mapped with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 6 and 20 cm with an angular resolution of 5″ x 8″ arc. In agreement with the earlier “WORST” map, the non-thermal source Sgr A East shows a shell structure, while the thermal source Sgr A West shows a spiral-like morphology. We suggest that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant (SNR) near the galactic centre. Its surface brightness is the third largest in our galaxy after Cas A and the Crab Nebula. The diameter is 9 pc and the source fits the surface-brightness diameter relationship of Clark and Caswell (1976) if a distance of 10 kpc is assumed.
Azaperone treatment can control aggression and decrease stress due to weaning, re-grouping and hierarchical fighting of gilts and sows. However, the effects of this butyrophenone neuroleptic and sedative administered at weaning on pig reproductive function are poorly characterized. In this year-long study, a total of 619 cross-bred sows (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace) kept on a commercial farm received an i.m. injection of azaperone (Stresnil®; 2 mg/kg BW) just before weaning and were artificially inseminated during the ensuing estrus with 3×109 spermatozoa per dose of an inseminate; 1180 sows served as untreated controls. Immediately after weaning, the sows were moved to four pens of seven to nine animals each. A teaser boar was used twice daily to check for estrus and sows were bred at heat detection. Subsequently, all sows stayed in individual stalls until pregnancy testing on day 30 post-artificial insemination and were then re-grouped until farrowing. The proportion of pigs that were in estrus within 6 days post-weaning was significantly lower in azaperone-treated groups of animals than in controls (71.4% v. 84.2%). Overall, the azaperone-treated sows had a significantly longer weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI; 8.7±10.1 v. 6.3±8.1 days; mean±SD) and a significantly larger litter size (LS: 11.8±3.0 v.11.3±3.2; azaperone-treated v. control sows). Treatment of the winter-farrowing sows was associated with increased LS (12.8±2.6 and 11.3±3.1 piglets/sow, respectively; P<0.05) and longer (P<0.05) weaning-to-effective-service intervals (11.7±19.3 and 8.4±12.3 days, respectively) as well as farrowing intervals (155.7±19.7 and 152.2±16.1 days, respectively) compared with untreated controls. In the summer months, significantly longer WEIs (12.1±21.0 v. 8.4±16.9 days) were accompanied by a significant decline in LS only in azaperone-treated sows that were inseminated within 6 days post-weaning (10.8±2.9 v. 11.5±3.3 piglets/sow; azaperone-treated v. controls). Azaperone-treated second parity sows had greater LS (P<0.001) along with prolonged WEIs (P<0.05) in comparison to their respective controls, regardless of the timing of estrus. An application of azaperone at weaning increased the annual piglet productivity of winter-farrowing animals and of second parity sows but depressed it significantly in summer. The extra cost and labor due to delayed onset of estrus may cancel out any reproductive benefits of azaperone treatment.
The increasing demand for energy storage devices has propelled research for developing efficient super-capacitors (SC) with long cycle life and ultrahigh energy density. Carbon-based materials are commonly used as electrode materials for SC. Herein, we report a new approach to improve the SC performance utilizing a Porous Carbon/Cerium Oxide nanoparticle (PC-CON) hybrid as electrode material synthesized via a low temperature hydrothermal method. Through this approach, charges can be stored not only via electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) from PC but also through pseudo-capacitive effect from CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The electrode-electrolyte interaction due to the electrochemical properties of the electrolyte provides an enhanced voltage window for the SC. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements were used for the characterization of this PC/CeO2 hybrid material system. The testing results have shown that a maximum of 500% higher specific capacitance could be obtained using PC/CeO2 instead of using PC only.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
We have observed SgrA at 332 MHz (92 cm) with a resolution of 12 arcsec (0.6 pc) using the four configurations of the VIA. These results illustrate the dramatic and almost unique variation of radio spectral index within the central 3–4 arcmin of the galactic center. SgrA East is a non-thermal shell source that could be a supernova remnant or a very low-luminosity example of a radio component associated with the active nucleus of a spiral galaxy. The most dramatic aspect of the new 332 MHz observations is the appearance of the the SgrA West spiral features in absorption against SgrA East. Based on these results, SgrA East is situated behind SgrA West, the center of the galaxy. The halo is in front of or surrounds the former sources. The HII regions to the east of SgrA East (1 = −0°.02, b = −0°.07) are probably associated with the 50 km/s molecular cloud. The 7 arcmin halo (20 pc) has a non-thermal spectrum with turn-over below 1 GHz.
Data are scarce regarding combined high Se and Mn supplementation in livestock diets, however, as Se and Mn are functionally related as cofactors of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively, beneficial synergistic effects on oxidative stability of tissues may result. This experiment evaluated the effect of an oversupply of Se and Mn within European legal limits compared with recommendations on performance, oxidative stability of the organism and meat quality in a randomised complete block design. A total of 60 crossbred gilts were fed maize–barley–soya bean meal diets formulated in a 2×2 factorial approach with inorganic Se (0.2 v. 0.5 mg/kg Se dry matter (DM)) or inorganic Mn (20 v. 150 mg/kg Mn DM) from 31 to 116 kg BW. Se supplementation reduced feed intake, whereas high Mn diets impaired average daily gain (P<0.05). Qualitative carcass characteristics were impaired by Se and Mn predominantly in the semimembranosus muscle. Activity of GPx in liver was increased by high Se diets (P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased catalase (CAT) activity in liver, GPx in plasma and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) in muscle, whereas it decreased CAT activity in plasma (P<0.05). Cu/Zn-SOD in muscle showed higher activity in high-Se-low-Mn diets but lower activity when both high Se and Mn were combined (Se×Mn P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased Mn concentration in longissimus thoracis et lumborum, but simultaneously reduced Se concentration (P<0.05). Upon retail display, Mn increased lipid oxidation more pronouncedly (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; P<0.05) than Se (P<0.10). Despite some positive effects (Mn increased TAC, Se increased GPx, Se and Mn increased tenderness), no synergistic effects of high Se and Mn diets or an overall beneficial impact on meat quality, especially during storage, could be observed. Including the negative effects on performance, feeding Se and Mn up to the maximum legal level cannot be recommended.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Nature and origin of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) remain enigmatic after thirty years (Wakker & van Woerden 1997, ARA&A, 35, 217), owing to lack of distance information. Hypotheses range from supernova shells at 100 pc to intergalactic clouds at 1 Mpc. On statistical grounds, Blitz et al. (1996, BAAS, 28, 1349) claim that the HVCs are “remnants of Local Group formation, best explained as members of the Local Group of galaxies”. Reliable distances must come from the presence or absence of absorption at the HVC's velocity in spectra of stars at different distances. For Complex A, MgII absorption is seen in HST spectra of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 106, but not in the star PG0859+593 at 4 kpc (Wakker et al. 1996, ApJ, 473, 834). La Palma spectra of the RR Lyr star AD UMa at 11 kpc distance show CaII absorption by Complex A at both K and H, which is lacking at 4 kpc. These absorptions are not confused with stellar metal lines. Our distance bracket 4 < d < 11 kpc places Complex A in the Galactic Halo, at 2.5 < z < 7.5 kpc above the plane; a distance similar to Local Group galaxies is excluded. The HI mass implied lies between 0.15 and 1.2 times 106M⊙. Our result precludes local origins for this HVC. It allows an origin in a Galactic Fountain, or in interaction of infalling intergalactic material (from the Magellanic System or the Local Group) with the Galactic Halo.
In the past 10 years, 6 classical novae have been observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have begun a study of these objects using ultraviolet spectra obtained by IUE and optical spectra from nova surveys. We are using the results of this study to further our understanding of novae and stellar evolution.
Our study includes analysis of both the early, optically thick spectra using model atmospheres (Hauschildt et al. 1992), and the later nebular spectra using optimization of photoionization codes (Ferland 1996; James & Roos 1993). By analysing all the LMC novae in a consistent manner, we can compare their individual results and use their combined properties to calibrate Galactic novae. In addition, our studies can be used to determine the elemental abundances of the nova ejecta, the amount of mass ejected, and the contribution of novae to the ISM abundances. To date we have analysed Nova LMC 1988#1 (Schwarz et al. 1998) and Nova LMC 1990#1 (Vanlandingham et al. 1999), and have obtained preliminary results for Nova LMC 1991. The results of this work are presented in this poster.
The classical model of the interstellar medium consists of cool clouds (typical temperature 80 K, number density 20-40 cm-3) moving through a warmer interstellar medium (104 K, 0.15-0.3 cm-3) at a rms velocity of ~ 10 km s-1. More recent models have included the coronal gas (106 K) as part of this medium. We consider the collisions of these clouds in order to determine whether these collisions initiate star formation and/or change the state of the interstellar medium.
In simulations of gas flow in the gravitational field of model barred galaxies which we have described elsewhere, structures resembling inner rings have formed. The model rings encircle the bar as observed in real galaxies, but are more elongated than the average inner ring. In this paper we show that the addition of a lens-like component to the background field results in much rounder rings. Indeed the shape and position of the model rings are very sensitive to any steep gradients in the azimuthally averaged surface density near the ends of the bar.
A large number of barred spiral galaxies contain a ring-like structure surrounding the bar. This is known as an inner ring if the bar terminates at the ring. Structures which are not closed but which appear to be related phenomena are given the name pseudo-inner rings by de Vaucouleurs (1959).
New observations of the Magellanic Stream were made in December 1976 with the 64-m radio telescope at the Parkes Observatory of CSIRO. The ridges of H I emission of the Stream were traced from near its tip at ℓ = 90°, b = -40° to the Magellanic Clouds. This was the first time that the total length of the Stream was observed with the one system (only possible from the southern hemisphere) and with high spatial (15’ of arc) and velocity (4 km s-1) resolution. The results of this survey are presented in Figures 1 and 2 and the main features are listed below.