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The back-reflect ion double-scanning diffractometer method, by which lattice parameters can be measured with a reproducibility of one part in 150,000 has been applied at liquid helium temperatures. A cryostat attachment is described which enables diffraction profiles to be scanned on both sides of the primary X-ray beam up to 163°, 2θ. Alignment errors may, thus, be eliminated by measuring the included angle 4θ between respective Bragg reflections. The method is illustrated by measuring the lattice parameters of the I.U.Cr. standard specimens of silicon and tungsten at various cryogenic temperatures.
A scanning range over Bragg angles from −163 to +163° 2θ is obtained by combining a diffractometer capable of scanning both sides of the primary X-ray beam with a very short (3-in.) high-power focused X-ray tube. The ability to scan the included angle 4θ between respective diffraction profiles on either side of the primary beam over the entire range of Bragg angles, provides a direct method of eliminating errors caused by a displacement of the specimen surface from the axis of the goniometer. The method is demonstrated by determining the lattice parameters of standard specimens used in the I.U.Cr. Precision Lattice Parameter Project.
Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue, which affect not only our hunger and satiety but also our motivation to eat particular nutrients, and the reward we experience from eating. Thus, to develop the evidence base necessary for effective policies, we need to build bridges across different levels of knowledge and understanding. This requires experimental models that can fill in the gaps in our understanding that are needed to inform policy, translational models that connect mechanistic understanding from laboratory studies to the real life human condition, and formal models that encapsulate scientific knowledge from diverse disciplines, and which embed understanding in a way that enables policy-relevant predictions to be made. Here we review recent developments in these areas.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
Rapid variability in Be stars could be understood by non radial pulsations or by rotation of an inhomogeous surface brightness distribution…
The structure and the variability of the Hα and of the HeI λ6678 lines have been investigated with an optical fiber spectrograph and a CCD camera. The signal to noise ratio, measured in the continuum, is between 300 and 500.
Weak changes in the Hα emission line profile of γ Cas have been detected on time-scale of hours and days. This line has an asymmetric profile exhibiting only one blue-shifted maximum while the HeI λ6678 has a double-peak emission, superimposed to the photospheric contribution, with a violet to red peak ratio V/R >1.
The Hα emission line of φ Per exhibits a complex structure with significant changes in its core, from night to night and on a short time scale <lhr. The HeI λ6678 presents a blue-shifted asymmetric emission (red-winged) superimposed to the photospheric contribution.
Furthermore the Hel photospheric line λ6678 of the B6 star o And has presented notable variations in its profile during the 2 observational campaigns, which do not seem correlated to the photometric period of 1.57 day.
In the present work, we propose a study performed on a pole-on Be star using its IUE and FUSE spectra that we showed only slightly affected by circumstellar emission. All our computations take into account the effects of fast rotation on the spectra (differential Doppler broadening + deformation and gravitational darkening). Using the line profiles of several well known transitions and a least squares method, we determine the abundance of light elements in the photosphere of HD 120991 and compare them to the chemical composition of the interstellar medium seen in the line of sight.
Allowing for systematic differences in the counting of Be Stars due to their overluminosity, changes produced by their fast rotation on spectral types and time spent in the main sequence, a difference between the IMF (Be) and IMF(B) appears, which indicates that the appearance of the Be phenomenon may relay on differences in the initial star formation conditions.
48 Lib (B3IV, vsin i=395 km/s) is a well known Be shell star. Cuypers et al. (1989) found a period of 0.4017 d, the single wave light curve being asymmetric. Rapid variations in the radial velocity of metallic shell lines have been found by Ringuelet-Kaswalder (1963) with a period of 0.115 d.
We present here a preliminary report on the analysis of simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Be star α Eri, taken during 1992 at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica. α Eri (Archenar, HR472, HD10144, B3–4 III-IV) is the brightest Be star in the sky. It shows activity cycles in a time scale of a few years. Balona et al. (1987) presented a comprehensive study of the star based on photometric and spectroscopic observations. They found a periodicity of 1.26 days in both radial velocity and light variations and argued that a spotted star rotating at this period is the simplest working model that explains the observations.
The bright Be star κ Dra (HD 109387, B5 III, v.sini=249 km/s) is one of the rare mid B type stars which have presented FeII emission lines during strong emission phases. Spectroscopic variations were previously reported by many authors over different time scales: years, days and hours. Juza et al. (1991) proposed that κ Dra was the primary component of a binary system with Porb. = 61.55 days. Short-term and long-term variations in the linear optical polarization were also reported by Arsenijevic et al. (1986). We have tried, with our extensive joint material, to search for correlation between long-term spectroscopic and polarimetric variations with the aim of obtaining information on the behaviour of the circumstellar envelope.
Fast rotation is expected to flatten the star and to produce non uniform temperature and density distributions (i.e. gravitational darkening). While the flattening mostly increases the absolute flux level of the energy distribution, gravitational darkening makes an equator-on star apparently cooler than a star seen through the pole. Both effects (Collins et al. 1991) influence the colours and the location of the star in the HR diagram but also, in a more subtle way, its spectral line profiles. More particularly, in early B type stars, gravitational darkening tends to privilege at the poles the formation of the ions with the highest ionization potentials and directly affects line formation. Consequently, most spectral line shapes - and especially the weakest ones - become aspect angle dependent which in several cases may play a role in the fundamental parameter determination procedures or even in the determination of stellar chemical abundances.
4 Her (HD 142926, HR 5938; V=5m.75, v.sini=300 km s-1) is a well known and rather frequently observed Be and shell star. It was recognized as a Be star by Heard (1939) and Mohler (1940). The estimates of its spectral type by different authors vary between B7 IV-V and B9e. Hubert (1971) reported remarkable spectral changes of 4 Her which occurred between 1953 and 1970. Harmanec et al. (1973) discovered periodic radial-velocity variations of the hydrogen shell lines with a period 46.023 days and suggested the object is a single-line spectroscopic binary. The system elements were later refined by Heard et al. (1975) to P=46.194 days, K=12 km s-1 and e=0.3. In a subsequent paper, Harmanec et al. (1976) studied the variations of emission and absorption components of the hydrogen lines and concluded that 4 Her is an interacting binary and that the observed eccentricity of the orbit is spurious, caused by the effects of circumstellar matter.
BCD (λ1, D) parameters of 49 “field” Be Stars are used to show that the Be phenomenon may appear over the whole main sequence evolutionary span. Models of rotating B stars are used to estimate the incidence of the fast rotation in the (λ1, D) parameters.
v sin i was determined by applying the Fourier transform method to the line profiles of two classical Be Stars. A variation is observed in the apparent v sin i which corresponds to the main frequencies associated to nrp modes. Rotational modulation is observed in wind sensitive UV lines of the Be star ω Ori and is associated with an oblique magnetic dipole which is discovered for the first time in a classical Be star.
φ Per (HD 10516) is a spectroscopic binary with a 126.699-day period (Ludendorff 1910, Cannon 1910, Harmanec 1985). However, most of the published RV curves of the primary are based on H I shell lines and exhibit a typical distortion with a sharp maximum, shallow minimum and a bump at 0.P4 after the RV maximum (c.f., e.g., Harmanec 1985). There has been controversy on the nature of the secondary. Hynek (1940) and Hendry (1976) concluded that the binary was composed of two B stars. Peters (1976) suggested that the secondary of φ Per is a Roche-lobe filling K giant. Poeckert (1981) reported the discovery of a weak He II 4686 emission which moved in antiphase to the Be primary and suggested that it originated in the disk around the secondary. In his interpretation, the secondary is a helium star, a remnant of an originally more massive star which in the past transferred its mass to the present Be star. There is now no mass tranfer in the system according to Poeckert. Using RVs of the broad absorptions for primary, and of the He II 4686 emission for the secondary, Poeckert obtained two roughly sinusoidal RV curves and M1sin3i = 21.1 m⊙ and M2sin3i = 3.4 m⊙.
High dispersion spectra in the visible range were obtained for field Be Stars in both hemispheres. As Be Stars form a class of Main Sequence fast rotators, we are intended to test how their chemical composition can be affected by rotation.
The pole-on Be star υ Cyg (HD 202904) displayed with Hipparcos photometry a strong long-lived outburst between 1989 and 1993. High S/N spectroscopic observations were obtained in August-September 1998. The photospheric λ6678 line is strongly perturbed by variable outer V and R emission components and is itself highly variable.
All the studied quantities (profiles, EW, radial velocity of the line centroid, V and R emission components, V/R ratio) are dominated by ν = 1.5 c/d frequency. The first harmonic (ν = 3.0 c/d) is also detected in the central part of the profile. In the nrp frame, this pair of frequencies corresponds to a low degree sectorial g-mode l = |m| = 2. Moreover mid-term variations are superimposed to short ones.
Correlations between long-term spectrophotometric and optical spectroscopic variations are investigated in some Be stars. Using spectrophotometric variations as a function of time and a compilation of spectroscopic measurements, we investigated temporal variations of emission and shell line parameters. In some cases time lags between spectroscopic and spectrophotmetric variations could be estimated. We could not find precise relations between the spectroscopic and spectrophotometric behaviours, but a number of tendencies could be derived which give information on physical parameters of circumstellar envelopes in Be stars.
In this work we have adopted the non radial pulsation (NRP) model in order to explain the rapid spectroscopic time variations observed in the Be star ζ Ophiuchi. Time series analysis were performed with CLEAN and Sequential CLEANEST techniques. We have also applied a different version of the Local CLEANEST that is optimized for multiperiodic signals observed in monosite campaigns. The frequencies of 7.19 and 11.89 cycles/day have been identified. These frequencies were found in previous papers about the star.