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Freshwater mussels are declining rapidly worldwide. Propagation has the potential to restore numbers of these remarkable organisms, preventing extinction of rare species and maintaining the many benefits that they bring to aquatic ecosystems. Written by practitioners with firsthand experience of propagation programs, this practical book is a thorough guide to the subject, taking readers through the process from start to finish. The latest propagation and culture techniques are explored as readers follow freshwater mussels through their amazing and complex life cycle. Topics covered include the basics of building a culture facility, collecting and maintaining brood stock, collecting host species, infesting host species with larval mussels, collecting and culturing juvenile mussels, releasing juveniles to the wild, and post-release monitoring. This will be valuable reading for any biologist interested in the conservation of freshwater mussel populations.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is often co-morbid with depression. Using the methods of network analysis, we computed two networks that disclose the potentially causal relationships among symptoms of these two disorders in 408 adult patients with primary OCD and co-morbid depression symptoms.
We examined the relationship between the symptoms constituting these syndromes by computing a (regularized) partial correlation network via the graphical LASSO procedure, and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) via a Bayesian hill-climbing algorithm.
The results suggest that the degree of interference and distress associated with obsessions, and the degree of interference associated with compulsions, are the chief drivers of co-morbidity. Moreover, activation of the depression cluster appears to occur solely through distress associated with obsessions activating sadness – a key symptom that ‘bridges’ the two syndromic clusters in the DAG.
Bayesian analysis can expand the repertoire of network analytic approaches to psychopathology. We discuss clinical implications and limitations of our findings.
For some companies, visual inspection has become an essential step when seeking to improve the quality of their products. The aim of this control is to be sure of the perceived quality of the product, which often goes well beyond the quality expected by the customer. For this type of control, the controller should be able to detect any anomaly on a product, characterize this anomaly, and then evaluate it in order to decide if the product should be accepted or rejected. This paper describes how this characterization can be carried out and, more specifically, how to measure the impact of the local environment of an anomaly on the perceived quality of the product.
Rates of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and sexual-risk behaviour for those aged 50 and over in the United States are highest and increasing in Florida, where many Canadian “snowbirds” winter. This pilot study examined the sexual-risk behaviour and predictors of HIV testing in a convenience sample of Canadian snowbirds who winter in Florida (n = 265). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds of testing were increased for the unmarried, those aged 50–64, those who had talked to a doctor about sexual-risk behaviour since age 50, and those who agreed that sex was important in their lives. Dating males were more likely to test than non-dating males. Dating females were not more likely to test than non-dating females; and males who dated were 13.6 times more likely to test than females who dated. Further research will improve understanding of Canadian snowbirds’ sexual interactions and HIV-testing behaviour.
The objective was to study the multidimensional nature of the relationship between adult obesity (OB) and socio-economic status (SES), using comprehensive indices of SES taken separately or synthesised in an overall index. A nationally representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was taken from the French second National Individual Survey on Food Consumption (INCA 2) dietary survey (2006–07). Weight and height were measured and OB defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. SES variables were reported in questionnaires and included occupation, education and characteristics of household wealth. Composite indices of SES (household wealth and overall SES indices) were computed by correspondence analysis, and relationships with OB were investigated with logistic regression analysis. In total, 11·8 (95 % CI 10·1, 13·4) % of French adults were obese, without significant difference by sex. While no significant relationship was observed in men, all SES indicators were inversely correlated to OB in women. Both education and the household wealth index were retained in the stepwise multivariate model, confirming that different socio-economic variables are not necessarily proxies of each other regarding the OB issue. On the other hand, ‘controlling for SES’ while including several measures of SES in multivariate models may lead to collinearity, and thus over-adjustment. A more integrative approach may be to derive a synthetic index by including the SES factors available in a given study. Beyond this methodological perspective, understanding how OB is related to the different dimensions of SES should help to target the more vulnerable groups and increase the effectiveness of prevention.
An array of microdisks with diameter of about 9 μm and spacing of 50 μm has been fabricated by dry etching from a 50 Å/50 Å GaN/AlxGa1-xN (x∼ 0.07) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The as-grown MQWs and the microdisk structures have been studied by picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL emission spectra and decay dynamics were measured at various temperatures and pump intensities. With respect to the original MQWs, we observe strong enhancement of the transition intensity and lifetime for both the intrinsic and barrier transitions. The intrinsic transition is excitonic at low temperatures and exhibits an approximate 10 fold increase in both lifetime and PL intensity upon formation of the microdisks. The exciton transition magnitude diminishes rapidly with increased temperature however, while the enhanced lifetime shows little change. At room temperature the dominant GaN well transition is found to be band-to-band in nature as evidenced by effective band gap shrinkage and band-filling effects seen within the PL spectrum. The implications of our results to III-Nitride microdisk lasers are discussed.
The ESRF has now started its upgrade programme. It has become evident from the start that upgrading beamline performance implies upgrading component performance. Beam stability is seen as a key requirement for many of the proposed beamlines, but the source of (in)stabilities can be manyfold. However, one identified source is white beam mirror, and therefore, ESRF has recently invested significant amount of engineering effort to improve white beam mirror performance. The motivation for having ‘ultra stable mirrors’ at the upgrade beamline ID24 Dispersive Exafs is analysed. The design solutions for positioning, cooling and supporting the white beam mirrors for this project are presented.