Chagas' disease is one of the few functional gastrointestinal disorders for which a causative agent has been identified. However, some pathological aspects of the chagasic megasyndromes are still incompletely understood. Chagasic megacolon is characterized by an inflammatory process, organ dilatation and neuronal reduction in both plexuses of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Although some studies on the ENS in Chagas' disease have been performed, the process of neuronal destruction and neuronal regeneration still remains unclear. Our hypothesis is that the regeneration process of the ENS may be involved with the mechanisms that prevent or retard organ dilatation and chagasic megacolon development. For that reason, we evaluated the neuronal regeneration with the marker GAP-43 in the colon's neuronal plexuses from chagasic patients with megacolon, and from non-infected individuals. Visual examination and quantitative analysis revealed an increased neuronal regeneration process in the dilated portion from chagasic patients when compared with the non-dilated portion and with non-infected individuals. We believe that this increased regeneration can be interpreted as an accentuated neuronal plasticity that may be a response of the ENS to avoid megacolon propagation to the entire organ and maintain the colon functional innervation.