To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In recent years, digital technologies have expanded the possibilities for human interactions in ways that were never before imagined, further complicating the teaching and learning of languages (Taguchi & Sykes, 2013; Thorne, Sauro, & Smith, 2015). Despite this complexity, when approached as meaningful, high-stakes practices, discourses in digital contexts can be highly useful for language learning and teaching. This article synthesizes work related to two digital discourse contexts, specifically hashtags and digital games. Moving away from technology as the vehicle to deliver “important content,” the analysis to follow examines digital discourses as both the content and context to be examined as part of learners’ multilingual experiences. The article begins by situating the discussion focused on digital discourses, reviewing relevant work addressing interactional patterns in each context, and then applying findings to second language teaching and learning. Drawing on empirical work, the article then describes a framework with specific examples for learner exploration of digital discourses as part of their language learning experience. The article concludes with implications for future research and teaching.
Highly degradable protein diets creating high ammonia and/or urea concentrations in blood or reproductive fluids may affect reproductive performance by their toxicity to embryos (Hammon et al. 2005). Pastures in NZ during spring have high CP (170 to 273 g/kg DM) and cows on these pastures have high blood urea (36 mg/dl; Moller et al. 1993). Few studies (Ordonez et al. 2007) have evaluated association between high blood urea and reproduction of individual cows. The present study examined individual cow reproductive performance and blood urea concentration during grazing of spring pasture.
The purpose of this study was to audit positioning errors during bladder image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and quantify survival outcomes.
Materials and methods
We carried out a retrospective review of 141 patients treated between March 2007 and July 2010 with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. An offline imaging protocol using kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used. Positioning errors, clinical interventions and re-planning rates were quantified. Cancer outcomes and survival were collected by review of patient notes and a registry search.
Among all, 43% of the patients required no intervention. Isocentre corrections were used for systematic bony set-up error in 13% and to improve bladder coverage in 28%. Clinical interventions to improve bladder coverage were required in 16% of the patients and repeat computed tomography planning in a further 16%. Overall, 44% of the patients demonstrated some form of organ deformation that would have resulted in inadequate dose to the bladder or significant overdose to an organ at risk if not corrected for. Post-treatment check cystoscopy was undertaken in 107 patients (76%) with 72 noted to have a complete response. Overall survival was 47·8% at 3 years.
Organ deformation during radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a significant problem for over 40% of patients. Strategies to compensate are essential to ensure optimal plan delivery.
The WTO case brought by India in 2002 to challenge aspects of the European Communities’ Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) brings fresh scrutiny to a policy area that has received little attention in recent years – trade preferences for developing countries. The idea for such preferences emerged from the first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in 1964. The ensuing negotiations led to Resolution 21(ii) at the second session of UNCTAD in 1968, acknowledging “unanimous agreement” in favor of the establishment of preferential arrangements. Tariff discrimination violates the most-favored nation (MFN) obligation of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Art. I, however, and thus the legal authority for preferential tariff schemes had to await a GATT waiver of this obligation, which came in 1971. The waiver was to expire after 10 years, but the authority for preferences was extended by the GATT Contracting Parties Decision of November 28, 1979 on Differential and More Favorable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries, popularly known as the “Enabling Clause,” and now incorporated into the law of the WTO along with the GATT itself.
This chapter addresses the dispute brought to the World Trade Organization (WTO) by India concerning anti-dumping duties imposed by the European Communities (EC) on cotton-type bed linen. An earlier complaint brought by India challenged the anti-dumping duties on a number of points, including the EC practice of “zeroing” for the computation of dumping margins (which had the effect of assigning a negative dumping margin a weight of zero when computing a weighted average dumping margin). India prevailed in that dispute, and the EC responded with Council Regulation (EC) No. 1644/2001, amending the original anti-dumping measure on bed linen from India. India was of the view that the amended measure did not comply with EC obligations under the WTO Anti-dumping Agreement, and brought the proceeding under Art. 21.5 of the DSU that is the subject of this chapter.
Since the inception of the WTO, safeguard measures have regularly been the subject of dispute settlement proceedings. The latest in this chain of disputes concerns the definitive safeguard measures imposed by the United States on a wide range of steel products in 2002.
The safeguards investigation of steel imports was initiated under the US law by the US International Trade Commission (USITC) at the request of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) in June, 2001. The request covered four broad categories of steel products, which were divided into 33 categories by the USITC for purposes of data collection. Ultimately, the USITC defined 27 separate “industries” producing steel products within the scope of the investigation. For each of these industries, the USITC proceeded to determine whether imports had increased, and if so, whether increased imports were a substantial cause of serious injury or threat of injury. This analysis resulted in negative determinations for 15 industries, affirmative determinations for eight industries, and “divided” determinations (a 3–3 vote) for four industries.
We introduce a game theoretical model of stealing interactions. We model the situation as
an extensive form game when one individual may attempt to steal a valuable item from
another who may in turn defend it. The population is not homogeneous, but rather each
individual has a different Resource Holding Potential (RHP). We assume that RHP not only
influences the outcome of the potential aggressive contest (the individual with the larger
RHP is more likely to win), but that it also influences how an individual values a
particular resource. We investigate several valuation scenarios and study the prevalence
of aggressive behaviour. We conclude that the relationship between RHP and resource value
is crucial, where some cases lead to fights predominantly between pairs of strong
individuals, and some between pairs of weak individuals. Other cases lead to no fights
with one individual conceding, and the order of strategy selection is crucial, where the
individual which picks its strategy first often has an advantage.
Few studies have prospectively investigated psychological morbidity in UK head and neck cancer patients. This study aimed to explore changes in psychological symptoms over time, and associations with patients' tumour and treatment characteristics, including toxicity.
Two hundred and twenty patients were recruited to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Late Effects on Normal Tissue (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic) (‘LENT-SOMA’) questionnaires, both pre- and post-treatment.
Anxiety was highest pre-treatment (38 per cent) and depressive symptoms peaked at the end of treatment (44 per cent). Anxiety significantly decreased and depression significantly increased, comparing pre- versus post-treatment responses (p < 0.001). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were significantly correlated with toxicity, age and chemotherapy (p < 0.01 for all).
This is the first study to analyse the relationship between Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores and toxicity scores in head and neck cancer patients. It lends support for the use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Late Effects on Normal Tissue (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic) questionnaire in routine clinical practice; furthermore, continued surveillance is required at multiple measurement points.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
Aqueous corrosion of zirconium alloys has become the major factor limiting prolonged fuel campaigns in nuclear plant. Studies using SEM, TEM and electrochemical impedance measurements have been interpreted as showing a dense inner-most oxide layer, and an increased thickness of the layer has been correlated to a better corrosion resistance. Many authors have reported that an ‘intermediate layer’ at the metal oxide interface has a complex structure or/and stochiometry different to that of both the bulk oxide and bulk metal, sometimes claimed to be a suboxide phase. Diffraction evidence has suggested the presence of both cubic ZrO and rhombohedral Zr3O phases, and compositional analysis has revealed similar variations in local oxygen stoichiometry.
We have carried out a systematic investigation of the structure and chemistry of the metal/oxide interface in samples of commercial ZIRLO corroded for times up to 180 days. We have developed new experimental techniques for the study of these interfaces both by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis in the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and by Atom Probe Tomography (APT), and exactly the same samples have been investigated by both techniques. Our results show the development of a clearly defined suboxide layer of stoichiometry close to ZrO, and the subsequent disappearance of this layer at the first of the characteristic ‘breakaway’ transitions in the oxidation kinetics. We can correlate this behaviour with changes in the structure of the oxide layer, and particularly the development of interconnected porosity that links the corroding interface with the aqueous environment. Using high resolution SIMS analysis of isotopically spiked samples we demonstrate the penetration of the oxidising species through these porous outer oxide layers.
Zirconium alloys have been used as fuel cladding and structural fuel assembly components in nuclear reactors since the 1950s, and show a characteristic variation in oxidation rate and layered crack morphology during aqueous corrosion. It is common to associate the first phenomenon with the appearance of the second. We have used 3D serial sectioning to study the morphology and distribution of cracks in corroded ZIRLO samples at different stages of oxidation, and have shown that cracks nucleate and grow at all stages of the oxidation process not just at the kinetic transition. We have used this data to analyse the nucleation of cracks with reference to the shape of the oxide/metal interface and the distribution of second phase precipitates.
Abstract: The Upland Cotton case raises a range of interesting issues regarding the rationale for retaliation in the WTO system and the proper approach to its calibration. These include: Should the approach to retaliation differ in cases involving prohibited or actionable subsidies? When should cross-retaliation be allowed? Should retaliation be based only on the harm to the complaining nation, or to other nations as well? And, most importantly, what economic content can be given to the standard of countermeasures ‘equivalent to the level of nullification or impairment’? We address these and other issues from both a legal and economic perspective, with particular attention to the question of what level of retaliation will restore the lost welfare of the complaining nation.
The United States is a leading producer and exporter of cotton. Its market share in world cotton trade has averaged 37% since the year 2000, and some 70% of US production on average has been exported. The US cotton industry has also long been the beneficiary of various forms of government support, averaging some $3.55 billion per year since 2000, as compared with average annual cotton output in the United States of $4.26 billion. These statistics alone suggest that US government programs for cotton production have had a sizeable impact on the competitive position of US cotton growers.
In 2002, Brazil requested consultations with the United States regarding various US government programs benefiting producers of upland cotton.
The Upland Cotton case raises a range of interesting issues regarding the rationale for retaliation in the WTO system and the proper approach to its calibration. These include: Should the approach to retaliation differ in cases involving prohibited or actionable subsidies? When should cross-retaliation be allowed? Should retaliation be based only on the harm to the complaining nation, or to other nations as well? And, most importantly, what economic content can be given to the standard of countermeasures ‘equivalent to the level of nullification or impairment’? We address these and other issues from both a legal and economic perspective, with particular attention to the question of what level of retaliation will restore the lost welfare of the complaining nation.
Urinary incontinence is common in the elderly. The epidemiology of fecal and double (urinary and fecal) incontinence is less known. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a national study of elderly living in the community at baseline (n = 8,949) and interviewed in 1991–1992, 1996, and 2001. Using data from the CSHA, we report the prevalence of urinary, fecal, and double incontinence in each wave and the cumulative incidence between waves and investigate the predictors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Urinary incontinence increased rapidly in old age, being almost twice as high in women as in men. Fecal and double incontinence were less common, but also increased rapidly with age. In women, parity showed a positive relationship with (prevalent) urinary incontinence. In men, diabetes was a risk factor for urinary and fecal incontinence. We conclude that urinary, fecal, and double incontinence increase rapidly with age and that inquiry about incontinence should be part of routine medical and nursing assessment of all elderly.
The electroglottogram approximate entropy value is a numerical variable which gives an overall measure of voice quality. It is derived by analysing the complexity of the electroglottogram waveform using regulatory statistics.
(1) To use electroglottogram approximate entropy to measure voice quality in patients with glottic pathology and in normal subjects, to ascertain whether this parameter can distinguish between pathological and normal voices. (2) To ascertain whether electroglottogram approximate entropy can measure voice change over time within individual subjects. (3) To determine any correlation between electroglottogram approximate entropy and the grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale.
One hundred and forty-one normal volunteers were recruited to characterise electroglottogram approximate entropy in the normal voice. One hundred and eighty-six patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma underwent electroglottogram approximate entropy measurement prior to radiotherapy and then three to six months and one year after treatment. Subjects’ voices were categorised by a speech therapist using the grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale.
The mean electroglottogram approximate entropy of the normal volunteers was 0.302 (range 0.05–0.42). The mean electroglottogram approximate entropy of the glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly lower prior to treatment, at 0.227 (range 0.001–0.397; p < 0.0005), but improved after radiotherapy to 0.277 at three to six months and 0.282 at one year. Electroglottogram approximate entropy results correlated significantly with grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale results.
Electroglottogram approximate entropy can be used to assess change in voice quality resulting from glottic morphological abnormality. Electroglottogram approximate entropy values improve as voice quality improves after treatment. Electroglottogram approximate entropy values correlate significantly with grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale results.
Previous outbreaks of Pontiac fever have invariably been associated with water droplet spread of Legionella spp. In January 2007 three workers from a horticultural nursery were admitted to hospital with non-pneumonic legionellosis. Investigations showed that a working party of ten people had been exposed to aerosolized potting mix; nine of these workers met the case definition for Pontiac fever. The presence of genetically indistinguishable Legionella longbeachae serogroup 2 was demonstrated in clinical specimens from two hospitalized workers and in the potting mix to which they had been exposed. A further seven cases were diagnosed by serological tests. This is the first documented outbreak of Pontiac fever from L. longbeachae serogroup 2 confirmed from inhalation of potting mix. Pontiac fever is likely to be under-diagnosed. We advocate the introduction of an industry standard that ensures the use of face masks when handling potting mix and attaching masks and warning labels to potting mix bags sold to the public.