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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that behaviour change interventions have modest effect sizes, struggle to demonstrate effect in the long term and that there is high heterogeneity between studies. Such interventions take huge effort to design and run for relatively small returns in terms of changes to behaviour.
So why do behaviour change interventions not work and how can we make them more effective? This article offers some ideas about what may underpin the failure of behaviour change interventions. We propose three main reasons that may explain why our current methods of conducting behaviour change interventions struggle to achieve the changes we expect: 1) our current model for testing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tends to a mean effect size. This ignores individual differences in response to interventions; 2) our interventions tend to assume that everyone values health in the way we do as health professionals; and 3) the great majority of our interventions focus on addressing cognitions as mechanisms of change. We appeal to people’s logic and rationality rather than recognising that much of what we do and how we behave, including our health behaviours, is governed as much by how we feel and how engaged we are emotionally as it is with what we plan and intend to do.
Drawing on our team’s experience of developing multiple interventions to promote and support health behaviour change with a variety of populations in different global contexts, this article explores strategies with potential to address these issues.
There are no large scale studies on Epilepsy in populations with Learning disability in Ireland. As many as one fifth of these clients have epilepsy. Aggressive treatment may lead to diminishing returns in terms of symptomatic control, while causing unwanted effects.
1. We aimed to quantify rates of epilepsy, aetiology and anti- epileptic drug (AED) use in our population.
2. To look at degree of disability and correlation with AED use.
3. To look at management/ quality of life issues using a validated instrument.
1. Medline review using search terms Intellectual OR Learning difficult* OR Mental Retard* AND Epilepsy.
2. Simple questionnaire used to identify all clients with Epilepsy. Database analysed using SPSS analysis.
3. 11 cases selected for review looking at qualitative aspects, using Semi structured interview and GEOS scale.
· 210 patients found to have a history of epilepsy (42% of clients).
· Multiple Aetiologies identified. Commonest known Aetiology: Trisomy 21.
· Polypharmacy is common. Most commonly used AED: Sodium Valproate. Mean AED use: 1.595 (SD+- 1.077).
· Clients with Trisomy 21 aged less than 40 tended to be on more medication (2.05, SD= +-1.38) than those over 40 years (1.43, SD= +- 0.89)
· Greater concerns on qualitative measures regarding clients with refractory epilepsy or where epilepsy changed over time.
Our study highlights previously recognised changing patterns in aetiology of Learning Disability and also the changes over time in these clients. More study is required.
The education and training of doctors specialising in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) varies substantially across Europe. There is a paucity of information available about training quality. This prompted an initial training survey led by Dr E Barrett (2010) which was expanded upon by the CAP working group in the 2010 EFPT international forum in Dubrovnik to create ‘country reports’ for 2010–2011.
The objectives of this study were to collect information relating to key aspects of CAP training programmes in Europe in a systematic way in order to start a ‘Training Database’ that can be held centrally by the EFPT. Information will be added to the database every year following EFPT annual international meetings.
We aim to better understand the training structures in CAP across europe to help inform best practice standards for training.
A pro-forma word document was emailed to all EFPT CAP contacts: there were 20 contacts emailed.
So far we have a response rate of over 60% and we are continuing to collect and collate relevant data. This survey highlighted a large variation in CAP training across Europe. It represents the basis for systematic data collection on an international level, and will help focus on areas where CAP training could be improved.
This survey highlights a large variation in CAP training across Europe. It represents the basis for systematic data collection on an international level, and will help focus on areas where CAP training could be improved.
Training schemes in psychiatry are developed and evaluated by national education policy makers in the majority of European countries. However, the requirements that a training program in psychiatry should meet are also defined on the European level in a form of recommendations by the Board of Psychiatry - European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS).
Recently, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) which represent trainees from more then 30 European countries, reported data pertaining to the structure of training programs and to the evaluation of training programs in 30 European countries. Whereas in the majority of European countries the structure of training programs and methods of assessment of trainees' competencies are partially compatible with one another and with the existing recommendations at the European level, the quality assurance of training programs varies significantly among countries. Regular evaluations of training programs and mentors, however, contribute to the proper implementation of training programs and help that the theoretical training principles are followed through in practice. As quality assurance of training schemes is an important mechanism how to improve the delivery of training programs, it should gain more focus by responsible authorities who structure the psychiatric training on the national and international European level.
The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) is an independent federation of psychiatric trainees’ associations. Previous studies have shown that up to 1/3 of countries surveyed did not have separate CAP training We surveyed trainees to gain insights regarding current training within the member countries of the EFPT.
Ten item Survey of Trainee representatives from 32 countries- using surveymonkey questionnaire.
Industry standard encryption technology utilisied.
27 respondent countries. Response rate 84.4% In many countries CAP and General Adult Psychiatry training were not separate Variable availability of training posts (surplus posts 23%, no posts/ long waits 19.2%) Duration of training: 3 years (19.2%),4 years (23.1%), 5 years (26.9%). In 35% of countries CAP training was entirely separate from commencement of training. In 40%, entry to CAP training occurred after training in general adult psychiatry. Trainees in 61.5% of respondent countries indicate their intention to specialise in CAP before entering training in psychiatry; 15% of trainees can indicate this at any time.
This is a survey of trainee representatives to the EFPT of ten items related to CAP training experiences. It highlights significant differences in training experiences in 27 respondent countries. From 2010 the EFPT aims to record detailed information on CAP training yearly. CAP trainees are an integral part of EFPT, and there are specific areas of needs in CAP training.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
• The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees is an independent federation of psychiatric trainees associations. 37 Countries were represented at the annual Forum in 2011.
• A Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Working Group meets at this annual forum to discuss issues of relevance to CAP trainees. At the 2009 meeting, the group reflected on difficulties in collecting data on training across Euro.
1. Ten item survey was was circulated to trainee representatives to the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees who attended the annual Forum in 2009.
2. Following this pilot study, a much larger study was conducted from 2010–2011.
• EFPT survey: In 2009–2010 pilot survey - 27 countries responded.
• The EFPT CAP group expanded this in 2010–2011. This survey collected data from 34 countries, 28 of whom provided full data-sets in the following domains:
○Structure and organisation of training;
○Training quality and content; and
○Working conditions and recruitment.
○Statistical analysis was performed on the data to achieve overall rankings of CAP training quality.
• This symposium will look at developing national and international surveys. Results from two completed EFPT CAP studies and ongoing work presented. These studies add significantly to extant literature- it is clear that training across Europe is extremely variable.
• This symposium will also highlight current opportunities for European Trainees. International collaborations and opportunities for trainees will be explored, and we will consider the role of trainees in international organisations
EFPT - The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees is an independent federation of psychiatric trainees associations and its function is to provide a forum in which trainees can learn about the diversity of the current training of psychiatrists in Europe.
EFPT consists of several working groups that focus on supporting different fields (e.g. psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry etc) and carry out various projects. The aim of CAP working group is firstly to represent CAP trainees and develop common recommendations regarding training while furthering links with organisations such as UEMS. In recent years the group has also recognised the need to collect information in order to assess the quality level of training in european countries, to recognise differences and build upon positives. In 2010–2011 this focused on training standards around Europe. In 2011–2012 we focus on:
A. The field of psychotherapy. The CAP group recognises that family relationships play a major role in the formation of a child's personality. The survey is being conducted in conjunction with the Psychotherapy WG within EFPT; thus training in this area in both adult psychiatry and CAP will be compared. Initial results will be presented at this symposium.
B. We believe that awareness of mental illness in the childhood should be an important part of the education in medical faculties. Therefore, we are keen to ascertain what placement opportunities in CAP are currently offered to medical students around Europe. Gathering information on this isT is our second aim for the next year.
Despite evidence that the majority of injection drug users (IDU) are polysubstance users and tend to have extensive substance use histories at time of first injection, little is known about the patterns of substance use associated with injection initiation.
To determine how injection drug use was associated with specific patterns of multiple substance use. Both concurrent (any use during a defined time period) and simultaneous (same session) polysubstance use patterns were assessed.
IDU receiving treatment at a low-threshold methadone maintenance clinic in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada completed structured interviews regarding their substance use histories.
Injection coincided with: concurrent heavy alcohol use; increasing use of stimulants such as cocaine; and the introduction of misused prescription medications. During their most recent injection session, participants were significantly less likely to inject a stimulant, and were significantly more likely to identify an opioid as their primary drug of injection, when compared to injection initiation. Moreover, alcohol was more likely to be co-administered at time of first-ever injection, whereas prescription sedatives and crack cocaine were more likely to be co-administered during the most recent injection.
Initiation into injection tended to occur after an extensive and relatively consistent sequence of substance use. First ever and most recent injection drug use often occurred within a polysubstance context; however, the specific patterns of substance use changed with time. Findings suggest that specific patterns of multiple substance use may be appropriate targets for treatment and prevention of injection drug use.
Interactions between the pharmaceutical industry (PI) and psychiatrists have been under scrutiny recently, though there is little empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship and its intensity at psychiatry trainee level. We therefore studied the level of PI interactions and the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a large sample of European psychiatric trainees.
One thousand four hundred and forty-four psychiatric trainees in 20 European countries were assessed cross-sectionally, with a 62-item questionnaire.
The total number of PI interactions in the preceding two months varied between countries, with least interactions in The Netherlands (M (Mean) = 0.92, SD = 1.44, range = 0–12) and most in Portugal (M = 19.06, SD = 17.44, range = 0–100). Trainees were more likely to believe that PI interactions have no impact on their own prescribing behaviour than that of other physicians (M = 3.30, SD = 1.26 vs. M = 2.39, SD = 1.06 on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 “completely disagree” to 5 “completely agree”). Assigning an educational role to the pharmaceutical industry was associated with more interactions and higher gift value (IRR (incidence rate ratio) = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.12–1.30 and OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.02–1.37).
There are frequent interactions between European psychiatric trainees and the PI, with significant variation between countries. We identified several factors affecting this interaction, including attribution of an educational role to the PI. Creating alternative educational opportunities and specific training dedicated to PI interactions may therefore help to reduce the impact of the PI on psychiatric training.
This is the first European psychiatric exchange programme and it aims to promote an intercultural professional exchange and cooperation among psychiatric trainees across Europe, with a focus on individual experience.
To provide trainees with the opportunities to:
promote awareness of intercultural aspects of psychiatry
engage in clinical, and/or research, and/or teaching activities
become acquainted with different mental health systems
gain experience of different illness manifestations and treatment options
experience a different training programme
socialise with peer group, promote networking and discuss coping strategies regarding work life balance
The programme was developed by the exchange working group of the EFPT in 2011 and it offers 2-6 weeks in observational placements across Europe in diverse areas.
Feedback from pilot phase (January-July 2012) has shown excellent overall satisfaction of participants in the project. In the 2nd phase (August-December 2012) the programme has expanded offering more observational placements in 8 countries such as: Croatia, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and UK. In the 3rd phase (January-July 2013) it expanded further to include Ireland, Netherlands and Romania in a total of 11 hosting countries. Placements are offered in many subspecialties such as: psychotherapy, emergency psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, eating disorders, family therapy, liaison psychiatry and psychosomatics, drug addictions, learning disabilities, forensic psychiatry and old age psychiatry.
We hope that the diversity of placements offered by this innovative programme will constitute a new approach to the improvement of psychiatric training and practice across Europe.
To explore associations of whole grain and cereal fibre intake to CVD risk factors in Australian adults.
Cross-sectional analysis. Intakes of whole grain and cereal fibre were examined in association to BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), serum lipid concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic BP, fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Australian Health Survey 2011–2013.
A population-representative sample of 7665 participants over 18 years old.
Highest whole grain consumers (T3) had lower BMI (T0 26·8 kg/m2, T3 26·0 kg/m2, P < 0·0001) and WC (T0 92·2 cm, T3 90·0 cm, P = 0·0005) compared with non-consumers (T0), although only WC remained significant after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake (P = 0·03). Whole grain intake was marginally inversely associated with fasting glucose (P = 0·048) and HbA1c (P = 0·03) after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake. Cereal fibre intake was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0·0001) and WC (P < 0·0008) and tended to be inversely associated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apo-B concentrations, although associations were attenuated after further adjusting for BMI and lipid-lowering medication use.
The extent to which cereal fibre is responsible for the CVD-protective associations of whole grains may vary depending on the mediators involved. Longer-term intervention studies directly comparing whole grain and non-whole grain diets of similar cereal fibre contents (such as through the use of bran or added-fibre refined grain products) are needed to confirm independent effects.
Postgraduate medical trainees experience high rates of burnout, but evidence regarding psychiatric trainees is missing. We aim to determine burnout rates among psychiatric trainees, and identify individual, educational and work-related factors associated with severe burnout.
In an online survey psychiatric trainees from 22 countries were asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) and provide information on individual, educational and work-related parameters. Linear mixed models were used to predict the MBI-GS scores, and a generalized linear mixed model to predict severe burnout.
This is the largest study on burnout and training conditions among psychiatric trainees to date. Complete data were obtained from 1980 out of 7625 approached trainees (26%; range 17.8–65.6%). Participants were 31.9 (SD 5.3) years old with 2.8 (SD 1.9) years of training. Severe burnout was found in 726 (36.7%) trainees. The risk was higher for trainees who were younger (P < 0.001), without children (P = 0.010), and had not opted for psychiatry as a first career choice (P = 0.043). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, years in training and country differences in burnout, severe burnout remained associated with long working hours (P < 0.001), lack of supervision (P < 0.001), and not having regular time to rest (P = 0.001). Main findings were replicated in a sensitivity analysis with countries with response rate above 50%.
Besides previously described risk factors such as working hours and younger age, this is the first evidence of negative influence of lack of supervision and not opting for psychiatry as a first career choice on trainees’ burnout.
To investigate how intakes of whole grains and cereal fibre were associated to risk factors for CVD in UK adults.
Cross-sectional analyses examined associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes and adiposity measurements, serum lipid concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, homocysteine and a combined CVD relative risk score.
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme 2008–2014.
A nationally representative sample of 2689 adults.
Participants in the highest quartile (Q4) of whole grain intake had lower waist–hip ratio (Q1 0·872; Q4 0·857; P = 0·04), HbA1c (Q1 5·66 %; Q4 5·47 %; P = 0·01) and homocysteine (Q1 9·95 µmol/l; Q4 8·76 µmol/l; P = 0·01) compared with participants in the lowest quartile (Q1), after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with C-reactive protein using multivariate analysis (P = 0·02), but this was not significant after final adjustment for cereal fibre. Cereal fibre intake was also inversely associated with waist–hip ratio (P = 0·03) and homocysteine (P = 0·002) in multivariate analysis.
Similar inverse associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes to CVD risk factors suggest the relevance of cereal fibre in the protective effects of whole grains. However, whole grain associations often remained significant after adjusting for cereal fibre intake, suggesting additional constituents may be relevant. Intervention studies are needed to compare cereal fibre intake from non-whole grain sources to whole grain intake.
Whole grain intake is associated with lower CVD risk in epidemiological studies. It is unclear to what extent cereal fibre, located primarily within the bran, is responsible. This review aimed to evaluate association between intake of whole grain, cereal fibre and bran and CVD risk. Academic databases were searched for human studies published before March 2018. Observational studies reporting whole grain and cereal fibre or bran intake in association with any CVD-related outcome were included. Studies were separated into those defining whole grain using a recognised definition (containing the bran, germ and endosperm in their natural proportions) (three studies, seven publications) and those using an alternative definition, such as including added bran as a whole grain source (eight additional studies, thirteen publications). Intake of whole grain, cereal fibre and bran were similarly associated with lower risk of CVD-related outcomes. Within the initial analysis, where studies used the recognised whole grain definition, results were less likely to show attenuation after adjustment for cereal fibre content. The fibre component of grain foods appears to play an important role in protective effects of whole grains. Adjusting for fibre content, associations remained, suggesting that additional components within the whole grain, and the bran component, may contribute to cardio-protective association. The limited studies and considerable discrepancy in defining and calculating whole grain intake limit conclusions. Future research should utilise a consistent definition and methodical approach of calculating whole grain intake to contribute to a greater body of consistent evidence surrounding whole grains.
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychotic disorders, but the profile of impairment across adulthood, particularly in African-American populations, remains unclear.
Using cross-sectional data from a case–control study of African-American adults with affective (n = 59) and nonaffective (n = 68) psychotic disorders, we examined cognitive functioning between early and middle adulthood (ages 20–60) on measures of general cognitive ability, language, abstract reasoning, processing speed, executive function, verbal memory, and working memory.
Both affective and nonaffective psychosis patients showed substantial and widespread cognitive impairments. However, comparison of cognitive functioning between controls and psychosis groups throughout early (ages 20–40) and middle (ages 40–60) adulthood also revealed age-associated group differences. During early adulthood, the nonaffective psychosis group showed increasing impairments with age on measures of general cognitive ability and executive function, while the affective psychosis group showed increasing impairment on a measure of language ability. Impairments on other cognitive measures remained mostly stable, although decreasing impairments on measures of processing speed, memory and working memory were also observed.
These findings suggest similarities, but also differences in the profile of cognitive dysfunction in adults with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders. Both affective and nonaffective patients showed substantial and relatively stable impairments across adulthood. The nonaffective group also showed increasing impairments with age in general and executive functions, and the affective group showed an increasing impairment in verbal functions, possibly suggesting different underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms.
Utilising routine surveillance data, this study presents a method for generating a baseline comparison that can be used in future foodborne outbreak investigations following a case–case methodology. Salmonella and Campylobacter cases (2012–2015) from Maricopa County, AZ were compared to determine differences in risk factors, symptoms and demographics. For foods and other risk factors, adjusted odds ratios were developed using Campylobacter as the reference. Comparisons were also made for three major Salmonella subtypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Poona as compared with Campylobacter. Salmonella cases were younger, while Campylobacter cases were more Hispanic and female. Campylobacter cases reported consuming peppers, sprouts, poultry, queso fresco, eggs and raw nuts more and reported contact with animal products, birds, visiting a farm or dairy, owning a pet, a sick pet, swimming in a river, lake or pond, or handling multiple raw meats more. Salmonella cases reported visiting a petting zoo and contact with a reptile more. There were significant variations by Salmonella subtype in both foods and exposures. We recommend departments conduct this analysis to generate a baseline comparison and a running average of relevant odds ratios allowing staff to focus on trace-back of contaminated food items earlier in the outbreak investigation process.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.