To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are prevalent, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often characterized by early onset and chronic course. When comorbid, OCD and BD can determine a more pernicious course of illness, posing therapeutic challenges for clinicians. Available reports on prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity between BD and OCD showed mixed results, likely depending on the primary diagnosis of analyzed samples.
We assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of BD comorbidity in a large international sample of patients with primary OCD (n = 401), through the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) snapshot database, by comparing OCD subjects with vs without BD comorbidity.
Among primary OCD patients, 6.2% showed comorbidity with BD. OCD patients with vs without BD comorbidity more frequently had a previous hospitalization (p < 0.001) and current augmentation therapies (p < 0.001). They also showed greater severity of OCD (p < 0.001), as measured by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings.
A method has been derived and is currently being used to plot normalized pole figures by computer techniques. As the pole distribution traces, i.e., intensity of the diffracted X-ray beam, versus angular position of the specimen are not an acceptable input for the computer, the data required from such traces are entered onto IBM punch cards. Corrections for defocusing effects may be readily made as the data are transferred from the Brown recorder traces to IBM punch cards. It is possible to program other correction factors into the computer operations providing that these correction factors or curves can be established accurately. The computer translates angular position of the specimen into reactiiinear coordinates which are an identical representation of stereographic coordinates. This computer method has been used in conjunction with the Schulz reflection technique, but modification of the computer program permits its use with other quantitative X-ray techniques for determining preferred orientation.
The feasibility of using computer techniques to plot inverse pole figures has been considered.
The problems associated with quantitative determinations and descriptions of preferred orientation are discussed and a method proposed to yield quantitative descriptions. A means of obtaining representative quantitative data using reflection techniques is described. The position of intensity minima in quantitative pole figure descriptions of preferred orientation is equal in importance to intensity maxima. Hence, rate-meter counting of diffracted intensity as the sample is continuously or semicontinuously rotated in a given spatial relationship is not satisfactory. Instead, sealer counting by fixed counts at a given spatial position yields more meaningful results; however, fixed-time sealer counting is used to reduce the time for data collection. The data are plotted in the form of normalized pole figures and analyzed.
To determine the relative volume of material associated with a given-texture component and an index of preferred orientation, the data are integrated. This is done by numerical integration or, alternatively, by graphical means. Integrating over the interval from ϕ = 0 to ϕ = π/2 and α = 0 to α = n/2 (where ϕ and α are spherical coordinates) will give the pole concentration per unit area for an ideally randomly oriented specimen for an octant of the sphere of projection. The relative volume of material associated with a given set of intensity maxima can be determined by integrating the intensity over the area of the maxima, summing these values, and dividing by the multiplicity to obtain the total intensity, It. The relative volume can be expressed as a ratio of It divided by random intensity. The texture strength can be expressed as the standard deviation from the random condition. Such information is vital to quantitative predictions of the anisotropy of properties
To identify scientific publications that result from food industry-funded projects on human health and to characterize their research topics to assess the potential for bias in the research agenda.
Food industry-supported projects related to human health were identified from food company websites; publications resulting from the food industry-sponsored projects were identified through a PubMed search.
Of ten companies analysed, only two (Coca-Cola and the Mars Center for Cocoa Health Science) provided a list of research projects with sufficient detail for analysis. Among the 204 publications resulting from thirty-seven disclosed research projects, the most common topic was physical activity (40·7 %), while highly processed foods were analysed in 10·8 % of the publications. Twenty-two publications (10·8 %) focused on research integrity or research methods.
Publications resulting from Coca-Cola- and Mars-sponsored research appear to skew the evidence towards solutions that favour industry interests by focusing on food components that can be manipulated and marketed by food companies. These food industry-funded publications can also distract from nutrition as a health issue by diverting public and policy attention to physical activity. Shaping the debate around scientific methods can be another strategy that corporations use for their benefit to raise doubts about the methods used in non-industry sponsored research.
Lateral memristors consisting of planar Ag electrodes (with sub-micrometer separation) supported on thin films of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide have been characterized. After an initial filament-forming process, each device exhibited volatile, resistive switching. In the low resistance state, the transport mechanism and conductance depended on prior activity and on the imposed current limit, mimicking biologic synaptic plasticity. Microscopic observations performed on each device revealed nanoscale filaments between the electrodes. These filaments were subject to Rayleigh instability and exhibited relaxation times determined by their effective radii. The relaxation times and on:off resistance ratios suggest suitability for threshold switching selector devices.
Elevated circulating cholesterol levels are a risk factor for CVD which is also associated with sub-optimal vascular function. There is emerging evidence that anthocyanins can cause beneficial cardio-protective effects by favourably modulating lipoprotein profiles. We compared the effects of blood orange juice which is rich in anthocyanins and blonde orange juice without anthocyanins on LDL-cholesterol and other biomarkers of CVD risk, vascular function and glycaemia. In all, forty-one participants (aged 25–84 years) with a waist circumference >94 cm (men) and >80 cm (women) completed a randomised, open label, two-arm cross-over trial. For 28 d participants ingested (i) 500 ml blood orange juice providing 50 mg anthocyanins/d and (ii) 500 ml blonde orange juice without anthocyanins. There was a minimum 3-week washout period between treatments. LDL-cholesterol and other biomarkers associated with CVD risk and glycaemia were assessed at the start and end of each treatment period. No significant differences were observed in total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, TAG, glucose, fructosamine, nitric oxide, C-reactive protein, aortic systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure or carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity after 28 d ingestion of blood orange juice compared with standard orange juice. The lack of effect on LDL-cholesterol may be due to the modest concentration of anthocyanins in the blood orange juice.
The longstanding association between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and schizophrenia (SZ) risk has recently been accounted for, partially, by structural variation at the complement component 4 (C4) gene. This structural variation generates varying levels of C4 RNA expression, and genetic information from the MHC region can now be used to predict C4 RNA expression in the brain. Increased predicted C4A RNA expression is associated with the risk of SZ, and C4 is reported to influence synaptic pruning in animal models.
Based on our previous studies associating MHC SZ risk variants with poorer memory performance, we tested whether increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with reduced memory function in a large (n = 1238) dataset of psychosis cases and healthy participants, and with altered task-dependent cortical activation in a subset of these samples.
We observed that increased predicted C4A RNA expression predicted poorer performance on measures of memory recall (p = 0.016, corrected). Furthermore, in healthy participants, we found that increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with a pattern of reduced cortical activity in middle temporal cortex during a measure of visual processing (p < 0.05, corrected).
These data suggest that the effects of C4 on cognition were observable at both a cortical and behavioural level, and may represent one mechanism by which illness risk is mediated. As such, deficits in learning and memory may represent a therapeutic target for new molecular developments aimed at altering C4’s developmental role.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare condition because of the deletion of paternal chromosomal material (del PWS), or a maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD PWS), at 15q11-13. Affective psychosis is more prevalent in mUPD PWS. We investigated the relationship between the two PWS genetic variants and brain-stem serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in adult humans. Mean brain-stem 5-HTT availability determined by [123I]-beta-CIT single photon emission tomography was lower in eight adults with mUPD PWS compared with nine adults with del PWS (mean difference −0.93, t = −2.85, P = 0.014). Our findings confirm an association between PWS genotype and brain-stem 5-HTT availability, implicating a maternally expressed/paternally imprinted gene, that is likely to account for the difference in psychiatric phenotypes between the PWS variants.
Theories of human aggression can inform research, policy, and practice in organizations. One such theory, victim precipitation, originated in the field of criminology. According to this perspective, some victims invite abuse through their personalities, styles of speech or dress, actions, and even their inactions. That is, they are partly at fault for the wrongdoing of others. This notion is gaining purchase in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology as an explanation for workplace mistreatment. The first half of our article provides an overview and critique of the victim precipitation hypothesis. After tracing its history, we review the flaws of victim precipitation as catalogued by scientists and practitioners over several decades. We also consider real-world implications of victim precipitation thinking, such as the exoneration of violent criminals. Confident that I-O can do better, the second half of this article highlights alternative frameworks for researching and redressing hostile work behavior. In addition, we discuss a broad analytic paradigm—perpetrator predation—as a way to understand workplace abuse without blaming the abused. We take the position that these alternative perspectives offer stronger, more practical, and more progressive explanations for workplace mistreatment. Victim precipitation, we conclude, is an archaic ideology. Criminologists have long since abandoned it, and so should we.
Little information is available on how physical processing of cereals affects crude protein (CP) degradation dynamics in equines. In two experiments the effects of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of CP in barley, maize and peas in the caecum of ponies were investigated.
In experiment 1, three caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were used whilst two of these ponies were used in experiment 2. In both experiments ponies were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester, 6.5 x 20cm, 41μm pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) contained either unprocessed barley (UB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB) (experiment 1) and either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) (experiment 2).
A wide variety of starch based feeds are available for inclusion in equine diets. These feeds may be subjected to physical processing (micronisation or extrusion) prior to inclusion. This experiment evaluates a range of starch based feedstuffs using an in vitro batch culture technique.
A total of 15 feedstuffs were incubated in vitro with an inocula prepared from freshly voided faeces which was collected from six ponies fed grass hay ad libitum. The feeds were five starch based feedstuffs; i.e: maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W), naked oats (NO) or barley (Ba) in one of three physically processed forms i.e: unprocessed (Unp), micronised (Mic) or extruded (Ext). All feeds were ground through a 1.0mm screen prior to incubation. Cumulative gas production (GP) was measured using the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) throughout a 72 h incubation period.
Previous work has shown that the mobile bag technique (MBT) can be used to study the dynamics of digestive processes in the whole tract of ponies (Hyslop et al, 1998). This experiment further develops the MBT as a method to study feed degradation dynamics over time in the pre-caecal segment of the digestive tract of ponies.
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (LW 270kg) were offered 4kg of dry matter (DM) per day of a 1:3 rolled barley:hay cube mix plus minerals, in 2 equal meals per day at 09:00 and 17:00h. Grass hay was also offered ad libitum between 17:00 and 09:00h. Two sizes of mobile bag (6 x 1 cm Ø-large and 4 x 1 cm Ø- small) made from monofilament polyester with a 7 μm pore size were used.
Processed cereals are used routinely in diets for equines but little information is available on how physical processing affects the digestibility of cereals in equines. This study examines the effects of three physical processing methods (rolling, micronisation and extrusion) on the in vivo apparent digestibility of barley fed to ponies.
Three mature caecally-fistulated Welsh-cross pony geldings, (LW 284kg ± 3.8kg) were used in a 3 x 4 incomplete latin square changeover design experiment consisting of four 21 day periods. Each period comprised a sixteen day adaptation phase and a five day recording phase when apparent digestibility in vivo was determined. Ponies were offered 4kg dry matter (DM) per day of either 100% hay cubes (HC) or one of three diets consisting of a 50:50 barley:hay cubes mix. The barley in the mixed diets was either rolled barley (RB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB). Diets were offered in 2 equal meals per day fed at 09:00 and 17:00 hours respectively.
Maize and peas that have undergone physical processing are used routinely in cereal mixes for equines. However, little information is available on how physical processing of maize and peas affects degradation dynamics in equines. This experiment examines the effect of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of maize and peas in the caecum of ponies
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester 6.5 x 20cm, 41? m pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) containing either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) were incubated in the caecum for fixed times according to both a forward (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 24, 48h) and reverse (48, 24, 8, 4, 12, 6, 2, 0h) incubation sequence. For each feedstuff residues from each time were bulked within pony and across incubation sequence for subsequent analysis of dry matter (DM) and starch (STC).
Estimates of digesta passage through specific segments of the alimentary tract are a vital component of modelling approaches which attempt to quantitatively partition digestive processes in equines. This study reports results from three studies where digesta passage of Chromium (Cr) mordanted feeds was determined in the caecum of ponies.
Caecal outflow rates were determined during three in vivo apparent digestibility studies conducted using three caecally-fistulated ponies as described by Moore-Colyer et al, (1999) for studies 1 and 2; and McLean et al, (1999) for study 3. Pony basal diets consisted of unmolassed sugar beet pulp (USBP), hay cubes (HC) or a 2:1 mix of oat hulls:naked oats (OHNO) in study 1; a 1:1 mix of USBP:HC (USHC) in study 2 and either 100% HC or one of 3 diets consisting of a 1:1 HC:barley mix where the barley was either rolled (RBHC), micronised (MBHC) or extruded (EBHC) in study 3.
Particle size (PS) may be reduced when feeds are ground through small screen sizes leading to increased losses from artificial fibre bags during in situ or mobile bag experiments in equines. Smaller PS may also alter the water holding capacity (WHC) of feeds which in turn may alter bag transit times during mobile bag experiments. This study examines PS and WHC in a range of starch based equine feedstuffs ground through two screen sizes.
Five feedstuffs (F) were used ie: barley (B), maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W) and naked oats (NO). Feedstuffs were subjected to three types of physical pre-processing (Pr) ie: unprocessed (Un), micronised (Mi) or extruded (Ex) and then ground through either a 1.0 or 0.5 mm screen size (SS). For PS analysis a 25g sample of each feedstuff was sieved through a stack of 11 sieves ranging in pore diameter between 45 μm and 2 mm using a mechanical shaker for 20 min.
In vitro techniques have been developed to study the fermentation kinetics of a wide range of animal feedstuffs but relatively few studies have been conducted specifically with purified feed constituents. This study uses the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) to record cumulative gas production (GP) when six purified starch sources were incubated in vitro.
Three replicates of six commercially available purified (98%) starch sources were incubated in vitro with an inoculum prepared from freshly voided faeces collected from six ponies fed hay ad libitum. The starches were a purified wheat starch (ABRA), four purified wheat starches that had been chemically modified with sodium tri-metaphosphate (V1, V21, V33 & V65) and a purified pea starch (PEA). GP was measured using the pressure transducer technique throughout a 72 h incubation period. At the end of the incubation period DM loss (DML) in vitro was determined by filtration.
Monitoring of ice-shelf and sub-ice-shelf ocean temperatures represents an important component in understanding ice-sheet stability. Continuous monitoring is challenging due to difficult surface access, difficulties in penetrating the ice shelf, and the need for long-term operation of non-recoverable sensors. We aim to develop rapid lightweight drilling and near-continuous fiber-optic temperature-monitoring methods to meet these challenges. During November 2011, two instrumented moorings were installed within and below the McMurdo Ice Shelf (a sub-region of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica) at Windless Bight. We used a combination of ice coring for the upper portion of each shelf borehole and hot-point drilling for penetration into the ocean. The boreholes provided temporary access to the ice-shelf cavity, into which distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber-optic cables and conventional pressure/temperature transducers were installed. The DTS moorings provided near-continuous (in time and depth) observations of ice and ocean temperatures to a depth of almost 800 m beneath the ice-shelf surface. Data received document the presence of near-freezing water throughout the cavity from November through January, followed by an influx of warmer water reaching ∼150 m beneath the ice-shelf base during February and March. The observations demonstrate prospects for achieving much higher spatial sampling of temperature than more conventional oceanographic moorings.