To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Business ethics research has long been interested in understanding the conditions under which ethical consumption is consistent versus context-dependent. Extant research suggests that many consumers fail to make consistent ethical consumption decisions and tend to engage in ethical decisions associated with ingroup (vs. outgroup) identity cues. To fill this gap, four experiments examine how construal levels moderate the influence of ingroup versus outgroup identity cues in ethical consumption. The studies support the contention that when consumers use concrete construal to process information, they will focus on ingroup cues and make ethical consumption decisions that are aligned with ingroup biases. However, when consumers use abstract construal, they will act more consistently with their inner goals rather than focusing on ingroup and outgroup cues. Social goodwill, which indicates desires to give back to society, is identified as mediating the effects. The findings have important implications for ethical consumption and social influence literature.
This inductive study proposes a duality in the design of organisations set up to pursue socio-economic development. Dualities exist when organisations pursue objectives that are jointly desirable, but difficult to reconcile. We ground the research on a sample of inter-organisational contexts set up to pursue development by way of improving basic transport infrastructure in two of Africa’s fast-growing cities, Lagos (Nigeria) and Kampala (Uganda). Our findings reveal sharp variation in the way two desirable objectives are prioritised: to build capital public goods and build the local institutions. When the institutional intermediary that brokers resource exchanges is a ‘traditional’ development agency, e.g. the World Bank, the focus is on building institutions.
The kingdom of Allada in the seventeenth century was an important supplier of slaves for the trans-Atlantic trade, and also an object of Christian missionary activity, but the earlier history of its interactions with Europeans is poorly documented. It has previously been assumed that the first direct Portuguese contact with the Allada area occurred in 1553. However, recently discovered documents in Portuguese archives correct this view. These comprise two petitions to the King of Portugal from an ambassador of the King of Allada currently in Lisbon: although undated, the content of one of them enables it to be dated to either 1544 or 1555, more probably the former; given the time which the ambassador had already spent in Portugal, his original dispatch from Allada occurred in 1540/1541 or 1551/1552. The petitions document the Allada king’s interest in the establishment of a Christian church in his realm, as well as commercial relations.
To assess the validity of self-reported height and weight by parents of 4-year-old children and subjective weight perception.
Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Paediatric population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
Children born in 2008–2009 examined at 47–59 months of age. Data were collected by paediatricians of the Madrid Primary Care Physicians Sentinel Network. Parents reported weight and height data. Prevalence of weight status categories was calculated using WHO and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference criteria. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were estimated. The appraisal of their child’s weight perception and parental misperception were assessed.
For 2914 children, reported height was underestimated by −1·38 cm, weight by −0·25 kg and BMI was overestimated by +0·41 kg/m2 on average. The prevalence of obesity estimated with reported data was 2·7 times higher than that calculated with measured data (16·2 v. 6·0 %) according to WHO classification, and 3·6 times higher with IOTF classification. Sensitivity to identify obesity was 70·5 %, specificity was 87·3 % and PPV was 26·2 % (WHO classification). Half of the parents of pre-schoolers with obesity failed to identify their child’s weight status. Parental misperception among children classified as having overweight or obesity reached 93·0 and 58·8 %, respectively.
Parents underestimated children’s height and weight, leading to an overestimation of the prevalence of obesity. Small inaccuracies in reported measures have an important effect for the estimation of population prevalences. Parents’ report of child weight status is unreliable. Parental awareness and acknowledgement of child weight status should be improved.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Both transposition of the great arteries (TGA) previously submitted to a Senning/Mustard procedure and congenitally corrected TGA (cc-TGA) have the systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle, thereby rendering these patients to heart failure events risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters for stratifying the risk of heart failure events in TGA patients.
Retrospective evaluation of adult TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise test in a tertiary centre. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year for the primary endpoint of cardiac death or heart failure hospitalisation. Several cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters were analysed as potential predictors of the combined endpoint and their predictive power were compared (area under the curve).
Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in 44 TGA patients (8 cc-TGA), with a mean age of 35.1 ± 8.4 years. The primary endpoint was reached by 10 (22.7%) patients, with a mean follow-up of 36.7 ± 26.8 months. Heart rate at anaerobic threshold had the highest area under the curve value (0.864), followed by peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) (0.838). Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm and pVO2 ≤20 ml/kg/min had a sensitivity of 87.5 and 80.0% and a specificity of 82.4 and 76.5%, respectively, for the primary outcome.
Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm had the highest predictive power of all cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters analysed for heart failure events in TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle.
Spatial models are increasingly being used to target the most suitable areas for biodiversity conservation. This study investigates how the spatial tool Marxan with Zones (MARZONE) can be used to support the design of cost-effective biodiversity conservation policy. New in this study is the spatial analysis of the costs and effectiveness of different agro-environmental measures (AEMs) for habitat and biodiversity conservation in the Montado ecosystem in Portugal. A distinction is made between the financial costs paid to participating landowners and farmers for adopting AEMs and the broader economic opportunity costs of the corresponding land-use changes. Habitat and species conservation targets are furthermore defined interactively with the local government agency responsible for the management of protected areas, while the costs of agro-forestry activities and alternative land uses are estimated in direct consultation with local landowners. MARZONE identifies the spatial distribution of priority areas for conservation and the associated costs, some of which overlap with existing protected areas. These results provide useful insights into the trade-offs between nature conservation and the opportunity costs of protecting ecologically vulnerable areas, helping to improve current and future conservation policy design.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional changes occurring in isolated perfused mammary alveolar tissue in response to inoculation with S. agalactiae and to identify the most affected biological functions and pathways after 3 h. Four udders taken at slaughter from cows with healthy mammary gland were perfused ex situ with warmed and gassed Tyrode's solution. Mammary alveolar tissue samples were taken from the left fore and rear quarters (IQ-inoculated quarters) before inoculation (hour 0) and at 3 h post inoculation (hpi) and at the same times from control right fore and rear quarters (not inoculated: NIQ). A total of 1756 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IQ and NIQ at 3 hpi using edgeR package. Within this set of DEGs, 952 were up regulated and mainly involved with innate immune response and inflammatory response, e.g., CD14, CCL5, TLR2, IL-8, SAA3, as well as in transcriptional regulation such as FOS, STAT3 and NFKBIA. Genes down-regulated (804) included those involved with lipid synthesis e.g., APOC2, SCD, FABP3 and FABP4. The most affected pathways were chemokine signaling, Wnt signaling and complement and coagulation cascades, which likely reflects the early stage response of mammary tissue to S. agalactiae infection. No significant gene expression changes were detected by RNA-Seq in the others contrasts. Real time-PCR confirmed the increase in mRNA abundance of immune-related genes: TLR2, TLR4, IL-1β, and IL-10 at 3 hpi between IQ and NIQ. The expression profiles of Casp1 and Bax for any contrasts were unaffected whereas Bcl2 was increased in IQ, which suggests no induction of apoptosis during the first hours after infection. Results provided novel information regarding the early functional pathways and gene network that orchestrate innate immune responses to S. agalactiae infection. This knowledge could contribute to new strategies to enhance resistance to this disease, such as genomic selection.
In recent years, mobile robots have become increasingly frequent in daily life applications, such as cleaning, surveillance, support for the elderly and people with disabilities, as well as hazardous activities. However, a big challenge arises when the robotic system must perform a fully autonomous mission. The main problems of autonomous missions include path planning, localisation, and mapping. Thus, this research proposes a hybrid methodology for mobile robots on an autonomous mission involving an offline approach that uses the Direct-DRRT* algorithm and the artificial potential fields algorithm as the online planner. The experimental design covers three scenarios with an increasing degree of accuracy in respect of the real world. Additionally, an extensive evaluation of the proposed methodology is reported.
Childhood is considered an important period for the development of healthy eating behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics, including early diet quality, on diet quality at 7 years. The sample includes 5013 children evaluated at the ages of 4 and 7 years from the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI with complete information on FFQ. A healthy eating index was developed at both ages to assess adherence to the WHO’s dietary recommendations, including eight food groups. Consumption quartiles were obtained for each group at 4 years and assigned a score between 1 and 4. A higher score represents a higher adherence to a better diet (range: 8 to 32). The associations between early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics and the score of the healthy eating index at 7 years were evaluated through linear regression models. The healthy eating index had an average score of 21⋅4 ± 3⋅53 (range: 12 to 32) at 4 years and 20⋅3 ± 3⋅36 (range: 11 to 31) at 7 years. After adjustment for confounders, a positive association was found between the healthy eating index at 4 and 7 years (β = 0⋅384, 95 % CI 0⋅356, 0⋅441). Maternal years of education (β = 0⋅094, 95 % CI 0⋅071, 0⋅116) and dietary score (β = 0⋅182, 95 % CI 0⋅155, 0⋅209) were positively associated with increasing dietary quality from 4 to 7 years. A healthier diet at preschool age, higher maternal education and a healthier diet increase the likelihood of maintaining a high healthy eating index score at school age.
The trematodes from South American reptiles are poorly known, with only one life cycle completely characterized. We used molecular and morphological methods to characterize diplostomoid metacercariae found in 29 of 86 pointedbelly frogs, Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862) collected in a marsh pond in Selvíria, in the central-west region of Brazil. The metacercariae were identified as Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936 (Proterodiplostomidae), a rarely reported species that matures in snakes. In phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from 28S rDNA, H. lanceolatum fell within a polytomy with the proterodiplostomid Crocodilicola pseudostoma (molecular divergence of 4.1%) and other members of the superfamily Diplostomoidea. Our collections provide insights into the ecology of this parasite, in that infected frogs were smaller than uninfected frogs, and metacercariae were more numerous in the abdominal cavity and hindlimb muscles than in abdominal muscles, which suggests directions for future research on the transmission and pathology of this proterodiplostomid.
Hermaphroditism is thought to be an advantageous strategy common in marine molluscs that exhibit simultaneous, sequential or alternating hermaphroditism. Several species of patellid limpets have previously been shown to be protandrous hermaphrodites. The present study aimed to confirm whether this phenomenon occurs in Patella piperata. Transitional forms of simultaneous protandrous hermaphroditism were found in intermediate size classes of P. piperata, in Madeira (North-eastern Atlantic). Sequential hermaphroditism was confirmed after histological analysis. The overall sex-ratio was biased towards females but approached similar proportions in the larger size classes. Analysis of size at sex change showed that at a shell length of 36 mm 50% of the population probably have changed sex. The results reported confirm the occurrence of sequential hermaphroditism. These findings are of utmost importance to the understanding of the reproductive biology of this species with direct effect on management and conservation of this traditionally harvested limpet.
The eastern North Atlantic (ENA) has many highly productive areas where several species of cetaceans have been recorded, with the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) being one of the most frequently sighted species. However, its spatial and temporal distribution in high seas is poorly known. The study presents the results from 5 years of cetacean monitoring in the ENA (2012–2016) aboard cargo ships that follow the routes from Continental Portugal to the Macaronesian archipelagos and north-west Africa. Common dolphin was the most frequently sighted cetacean with 192 occurrences registered on effort and an overall encounter rate of 0.36 sightings/100 nmi. The species was distributed in coastal and offshore waters, but absent from the Canaries and Cape Verde islands. Statistical ‘habitat’ models were developed to describe and explain the occurrence of sightings of the species: variables affecting detection of dolphins had a small impact and there were clear spatiotemporal distribution patterns, influenced to some degree by environmental variables. Predicted probability of occurrence was highest in coastal waters of continental Portugal and around the Azores. The models, combined with maps of distribution, were useful to identify important areas for the species, which could be the focus of future conservation efforts. Common dolphin presence was related to depth, distance to coast and seamounts, seabed slope, chlorophyll concentration, sea-surface temperature and sea level anomalies; the possible ecological significance of these relationships is explored.
The relationship between human rights and criminal justice has long been considered to be particularly intricate. On the one hand, human rights law may promote change in the criminal justice machinery at both the domestic and international levels. On the other hand, unsuitable national criminal law or wrongful application of the applicable criminal law and procedure provisions may interfere with treaty obligations undertaken by States in respect of human rights. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the existing bond between human rights and criminal justice be clearly defined in the context of the administration of criminal justice so that the objectives of both can be harmonised within the democratic state.
In this context, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has played an important role as human rights adjudicator in the field of criminal law. An analysis of the Strasbourg case law on criminal matters reveals that the Convention obligations undertaken by the States are twofold: on one hand, the protection of the individual against the overuse of criminal justice and, on the other hand, the use of criminal law for the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals and legal persons. The former Belgian Judge at the ECtHR, Francoise Tulkens, described these two aspects as the “the defensive role of human rights” and “the offensive role of human rights” in what she called “the paradoxical relationship between criminal law and human rights”.
This contribution aims at exploring the case law of the ECtHR in the light of the traditional “defensive role of human rights”, focusing on the overuse of criminal justice against the individual and, in particular, on the overuse of criminalisation and of imprisonment. In other words, this contribution will revisit some of the cases in which the Strasbourg Court has considered the criminalisation of an act and the recourse to imprisonment to be in breach of a Convention right.
OVERUSE OF CRIMINALISATION
A manifestation of the overuse of the criminal justice machinery can be first found at the legislative level. When considering the criminal approach to be adopted in relation to a specific conduct, the legislature should take into account that criminal law should only be used as a last resort when no other alternative to a criminal law measure exists.
We are revisiting the topic of travelling fronts for the food-limited (FL) model with spatio-temporal nonlocal reaction. These solutions are crucial for understanding the whole model dynamics. Firstly, we prove the existence of monotone wavefronts. In difference with all previous results formulated in terms of ‘sufficiently small parameters’, our existence theorem indicates a reasonably broad and explicit range of the model key parameters allowing the existence of monotone waves. Secondly, numerical simulations realized on the base of our analysis show appearance of non-oscillating and non-monotone travelling fronts in the FL model. These waves were never observed before. Finally, invoking a new approach developed recently by Solar et al., we prove the uniqueness (for a fixed propagation speed, up to translation) of each monotone front.
Pharmaceutical services for public health emergencies, such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic, are relevant for service effectiveness in the Brazilian health system. Pharmacists can act strategically in risk reduction. However, official guidelines do not consider pharmaceutical services when approaching health emergencies.
To identify and understand primary healthcare pharmacist interventions in risk reduction for the recent ZIKV epidemic in Brazil.
The study took place in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, in November 2017. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed, including general issues related to knowledge of Zika, risk communication, and the pharmacist's role in patient care for ZIKV disease. The instrument was pre-tested. Primary healthcare center (PHC) pharmacists were subsequently interviewed. Aspects related to knowledge, risk reduction measures, and role were categorized and analyzed. The project received approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the Sergio Arouca National School of Public Health.
Forty-two of the 48 PHC pharmacists in Campo Grande were interviewed. Risk reduction measures were cited by most interviewees. Among these strategies, 92% were collective measures, such as making information available for the population (30%) and for the health workers (8%), and vector control strategies (43%). Use of mosquito nets was the most cited individual risk-reduction strategy. Only one pharmacist cited risk for pregnant women and suggested birth control as a strategy. Another pharmacist pointed to ZIKV “treatment.” No interviewee mentioned measures related to preparedness of pharmaceutical services.
PHC pharmacists do not place themselves at the frontline of risk reduction for the ZIKV epidemic. In the face of potential hazards and consequences of this disease, action by pharmacists is deemed critical. This study highlights pharmacist's misconceptions and lack of focused knowledge, pointing to the need for training and capacity-building in order to increase quality of care and positive management of future epidemics.
In Brazil, poverty-stricken population groups were the most affected by Zika virus (ZIKV). Women and children are fragile links that need focused attention, especially in relation to health care.
To investigate vulnerable, at-risk women in relation to their awareness of the ZIKV infection knowledge about the disease.
With evidence-based risk communication literature and consequences of ZIKV infection, a data collection instrument with open-ended questions was developed. Women from a small municipality in west-central Brazil, most from a rural setting, were interviewed at primary health care centers in April 2018. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A preliminary analysis ensued.
Forty women were interviewed. The average age was 42.3 (21-74 yrs) and 39 women had at least one child. The average number of people living in the same home was 3.8 (1-18) and 24 homes (60%) had one to four children. Fourteen women (54%) were beneficiaries of income supplementation programs. Two interviewees mentioned they had never heard of Zika and eight (20%) had no actual knowledge to convey. Other groups had some knowledge about ZIKV. Fifteen (37.5%) associated ZIKV with mosquito bites and another 15 with pregnancy or birth defects. Ten women (25%) mentioned dengue or chikungunya, but only 7 (17.5%) were aware of symptoms. Only eleven women (27.5%) declared public health workers as information sources.
Positive aspects of awareness and knowledge were the tentative relationship some women made between pregnancy risk and exposure to mosquitoes, and with dengue or chikungunya. However, given ample media coverage and the severity of the epidemic, it is noteworthy to point out that all aspects were mentioned by fewer than half of the women. Health workers were not represented as relevant sources of information. Future in-depth content analysis of interviews may reveal important issues for risk communication strategies for this population.