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While mastery of aspects of music theory is relevant to rapid learning and understanding of a new choral part, many choirs comprise members with no formal education in music theory. Also, the language of music theory is not intuitive, with many terms having meanings different from those in common use, which can present obstacles for mature learners. The authors hypothesised that students joining an internationally recognised university choir might master aspects of music theory as a by-product of rehearsals. This was tested by having new admissions to such a choir complete a music theory test at the commencement and at the end of a year. The test evaluated the ability to name and write intervals and name notes and the duration of notes. Overall results did not reject the hypothesis. Subjects with no formal music training also showed most, and statistically significant, improvement in the questions related to intervals, which are arguably the most useful skills for choristers who do not sight-read. This appears to be a new finding: the literature shows occasional references to music theory skills, but their acquisition in a learning-by-doing style is not reported. Some insights into ways of enhancing choral performance are a by-product of the principal focus of the study.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
This chapter will build on previous research on the African National Congress (ANC) and the National Question rather than restate it (Suttner and Cronin, 1986; Van Diepen, 1988). It will focus on public goods and the idea of the ‘good society’ embedded in two foundational policy documents of the ANC: African Claims of 1943 and the Freedom Charter of 1955. It will discuss the thinking that informed these documents in the context of the struggle to overcome the racial and class inequalities of the apartheid era.
I chose this approach because I consider that the framing of the National Question is not reducible only to the struggle to end white domination. It is also about the idea of an alternative ‘good society’ – that is, a society planned and organised with particular social and economic arrangements to meet the needs of its citizens. The ANC, in the struggle to construct a nation, had defined an understanding of what the ‘good society’ was; this is reflected most significantly in African Claims and the Freedom Charter. These ANC policy documents are embedded in the idea that the state should actively intervene in the market to secure the social rights of citizenship for all citizens – which included rights to healthcare in the form of a national health service (NHS), the rights to education in the form of a comprehensive system of education, and rights to welfare in the form of a national system of welfare provision. These historical policy statements also directly imply or call for economic arrangements that are consistent with a neo-Keynesian social democratic strategy of economic development, where the state intervenes to secure decent employment for its citizens, including through investment in public goods such as health and education which are universally free at the point of delivery. They articulate a clear ‘strategy of equality’ for the society which the socialist and historian Richard Tawney described as
… the pooling of its surplus resources by means of taxation, and the use of the funds thus obtained to make accessible to all, irrespective of their income, occupation, or social position, the conditions of civilization which, in the absence of such measures, can be enjoyed only by the rich (Tawney, 1952: 130).
There is evidence of executive function impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that potentially contributes to symptom development and maintenance. Nevertheless, the precise nature of these executive impairments and their neural basis remains to be defined.
We compared stopping and shifting, two key executive functions previously implicated in OCD, in the same task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, in patients with virtually no co-morbidities and age-, verbal IQ- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. The combined task allowed direct comparison of neural activity in stopping and shifting independent of patient sample characteristics and state variables such as arousal, learning, or current symptom expression.
Both OCD patients and controls exhibited right inferior frontal cortex activation during stopping, and left inferior parietal cortex activation during shifting. However, widespread under-activation across frontal-parietal areas was found in OCD patients compared to controls for shifting but not stopping. Conservative, whole-brain analyses also indicated marked divergent abnormal activation in OCD in the caudate and thalamus for these two cognitive functions, with stopping-related over-activation contrasting with shift-related under-activation.
OCD is associated with selective components of executive function, which engage similar common elements of cortico-striatal regions in different abnormal ways. The results implicate altered neural activation of subcortical origin in executive function abnormalities in OCD that are dependent on the precise cognitive and contextual requirements, informing current theories of symptom expression.
Generalist educators in South Africa shy away from music in the subjects Life Skills (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art, Physical Education and Personal and Social Well-being) and Creative Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art) and universities are not delivering generalist students for the subject demands. In-service educators, as well as subject advisors, often have had no music training. The twofold purpose of this study was to determine the extent of challenges experienced in the music component of Life Skills and Creative Arts in South Africa and how this can best be dealt with. In the current study, mixed methods research was conducted to ascertain the problems experienced with music tuition in Life Skills and Creative Arts classrooms. It was found that generalist educators have to teach music, whether they have the requisite skills or not. The subject has low status and is frequently used as a filler subject for teachers. Lack of music knowledge, scarce resources, limited support and ever-changing educators are some reasons for the absence of quality music tuition. Mentoring by competent subject advisors and senior educators and the re-alignment of school and university curricula will assist music in enjoying its rightful place in the school curriculum.
The Natal Group and Msikaba Formation remain relatively poorly understood with regards to their provenance and relative age of deposition; a much-needed geochronological study of the detrital zircons from these two units was therefore undertaken. Five samples of the Durban and Mariannhill Formations (Natal Group) and the Msikaba Formation (Cape Supergroup) were obtained. A total of 882 concordant U–Pb ages of detrital zircon populations from these units were determined by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Major Neoproterozoic and secondary Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon age populations are present in the detrital zircon content of all the samples. Smaller contributions from Archean-, Palaeoproterozoic-, Cambrian- and Ordovician-aged grains are also present. Due to the presence of a prominent major population of 800–1000 Ma zircons in all the samples, late Stenian – Tonian ancient volcanic arc complexes overprinted by Pan-African metamorphism of Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia, along with areas of similar age within Antarctica, India and Sri Lanka, are suggested as major sources of detritus. The Namaqua–Natal Metamorphic Complex is suggested as a possible source of minor late Mesoproterozoic-aged detritus. Minor populations of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic zircons were likely sourced from the Kaapvaal and Grunehogna Cratons. Post-orogenic Cambrian – Lower Ordovician granitoids of the Mozambique Belt (Mozambique) and the Maud Belt (Antarctica) made lesser contributions. In view of the apparent broad similarity of source areas for the Natal Group and Msikaba Formation, their sedimentation occurred in parts of the same large and evolving basin rather than localized in small continental basins, and the current exposures merely represent small erosional relicts.
Short-range elephant Loxodonta africana movements were examined in a heterogeneous landscape mosaic of settlements, crop fields and remnant forest in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia. We explored the penetration of the landscape through the use of permanent pathways and determined the impact of pathway use on crop-raiding location. Pathways were linear, devoid of vegetation and maintained by repeated movement. Functional connectivity of pathways was not species-specific, and pathways were used by various species. Elephants travelled in single file at night and we recorded selective pathway use: females selected pathways away from settlements to access water, whereas males used pathways among settlements to launch crop raids. Proximity of raided fields to the nearest pathway was the only significant spatial variable explaining crop-raiding location. Bulls were responsible for all crop-raiding incidents. We conclude that (1) pathways were the most significant spatial variable influencing which fields were raided, (2) crop-raiding from pathways may maximize foraging efficiency by reducing time spent and distance travelled while foraging, (3) pathways may facilitate penetration of the matrix by connecting predictable resources (crops) with preferred shelter areas, crossing points at roads and preferred drinking spots, and (4) access to the Kwandu River is restricted by settlements, predictably resulting in human–elephant conflict. By highlighting the relevance of pathways for movement of elephants we show that an understanding of the use of pathways is important for land-use planning in conservation landscapes, specifically with regard to human–elephant conflict. We also argue for the need to more fully explore pathway occurrence and use at larger spatial scales.
The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents. Different adjuvants can be added to suspensions of EPNs, to improve control as a foliar application. An aqueous suspension containing Heterorhabditis zealandica and 0.3% Zeba® significantly increased P.citri mortality by 22% at 80% relative humidity (RH) with a temperature cycle starting at 22°C for 14 h and 11°C for 11 h. The same polymer formulation was tested for Steinernema yirgalemense and mortality of P. citri increased by 21% at 60% RH and by 27% at 80% RH. The addition of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to H. zealandica suspensions did not significantly retard application run-off on citrus leaves. The combination of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, however, was able to significantly retard sedimentation, increasing the average number of nematodes deposited on 2-cm2 leaf discs by 10 nematodes. In an aqueous suspension, nematodes settle rapidly to the bottom, resulting in an uneven distribution of nematodes. Xanthan gum, at a concentration of 0.2%, was highly effective at retarding sedimentation, with 72% of the initial nematode number still in suspension after 1 h. Zeba®, at a concentration of 0.3%, despite not being as effective as Xanthan gum, nevertheless still retarded sedimentation significantly. This is the first report of the potential of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to improve EPN performance against P. citri when used above ground in citrus orchards.