To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article examines the cases of children born out of wedlock and adopted children with the aim of depicting the mechanisms through which the concepts of biological fatherhood, derived from the human-rights framework, and adoption, derived from the customary law framework, have been adopted into Indonesian Islamic family law. We argue that the introduction of external concepts into family law pertaining to Muslims requires an adaptation process in which the relation between these external concepts and core Islamic family law concepts is determined. In the case of children born out of wedlock, this adaptation to core Islamic norms means that biological fatherhood does not lead to a full legal father-child relationship, despite a 2012 Constitutional Court ruling establishing that children born out of wedlock have a civil relationship with their biological father. In the case of adoption, it means that there is no full adoption, despite recognition of customary adoptions under Indonesian law. We argue that in a context of strong support for a religion-based family law, reforms tend to take the form of conditions or exceptions to core religious concepts, as replacing these concepts altogether would be perceived as jeopardizing the religious character of the law. While attempts to replace core Islamic family law concepts will inevitably meet strong resistance, there is much more tolerance for introducing family law reforms that aim at changing the way that Islamic concepts are applied in practice.
In this chapter, I will reflect on Lev’s analysis of the political dimensions of Indonesia’s Islamic courts system. As a postscript in his last chapter of his book Islamic courts in Indonesia, Lev looks into the question of what consequences of political developments in 1971 might have for the future of the Islamic courts. According to Lev, a dual legal system consisting of ‘civil and religious legal systems reflect competing political principles and sources of legitimacy that cannot be tolerated for long’. Lev predicted in 1971 that the civil legal system in ‘one form or another’ would attempt to subjugate Islamic institutions to overriding principles of state legitimacy and bureaucratic integrity, but that the result of this process would be uncertain and dependent on the development of the religious–social–political cleavage in Indonesia. Below I will argue that a convergence between the civil and religious legal systems took place after 1971, but that this was not the result of subjugation of religious law by the civil legal system, but of an increased fusion of the civil and the religious pillars within Indonesia’s religious, social, political and legal domains.
The importance of the hippocampus and amygdala for disrupted emotional memory formation in depression is well-recognized, but it remains unclear whether functional abnormalities are state-dependent and whether they are affected by the persistence of depressive symptoms.
Thirty-nine patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls were included from the longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sub-study of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during fMRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up measurement. At baseline, all patients were in a depressed state. We investigated state-dependency by relating changes in brain activation over time to changes in symptom severity. Furthermore, the effect of time spent with depressive symptoms in the 2-year interval was investigated.
Symptom change was linearly associated with higher activation over time of the left anterior hippocampus extending to the amygdala during positive and negative word-encoding. Especially during positive word encoding, this effect was driven by symptomatic improvement. There was no effect of time spent with depression in the 2-year interval on change in brain activation. Results were independent of medication- and psychotherapy-use.
Using a longitudinal within-subjects design, we showed that hippocampal–amygdalar activation during emotional memory formation is related to depressive symptom severity but not persistence (i.e. time spent with depression or ‘load’), suggesting functional activation patterns in depression are not subject to functional ‘scarring’ although this hypothesis awaits future replication.
Disturbances in emotion regulation (ER) are characteristic of both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activation during cognitive ER in BD and SZ to understand the contribution of temporal characteristics of disturbed ER to their unique and shared symptomatology.
Forty-six participants performed an ER-task (BD, n = 15; SZ, n = 16; controls, n = 15) during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which they were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal techniques to regulate their emotional responses. Finite impulse response modeling was applied to estimate the temporal dynamics of brain responses during cognitive reappraisal (v. passive attending) of negative pictures. Group, time, and group × time effects were tested using multivariate modeling.
We observed a group × time interaction during ER in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior occipital gyrus. Patients with SZ demonstrated initial hyper-activation of the VLPFC and SMA activation that was not sustained in later regulatory phases. Response profiles in the inferior occipital gyrus in SZ showed abnormal activation in the later phases of regulation. BD-patients showed general blunted responsivity in these regions.
These results suggest that ER-disturbances in SZ are characterized by an inefficient initialization and failure to sustain regulatory control, whereas in BD, a failure to recruit regulatory resources may represent initial deficits in formulating adequate representations of the regulatory needs. This may help to further understand how ER-disturbances give rise to symptomatology of BD and SZ.
South-east Asian apple snails, Pila spp., have been declining since the introduction of globally invasive, confamilial South American Pomacea spp., yet Pila ecology remains poorly studied, with most occurrence records unconfirmed. Pila scutata, a previously widespread species, presumed native to the Malay peninsula and assessed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List, was formerly harvested for food, and may have experienced anthropogenic translocations. We surveyed the Malay peninsula (specifically Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore) to investigate the current distribution and genetic diversity of P. scutata. Six populations were found in Singapore, but only one in Peninsular Malaysia. Mitochondrial COI and 16S sequencing revealed that the Malaysian population shared a single haplotype of both genes with the Singapore populations (500 km distant). This low genetic diversity could stem from a recent anthropogenic introduction, which brings into question the true native range of P. scutata and, coupled with poorly resolved taxonomy of the genus, necessitates a reassessment of its IUCN Red List status. Introduced populations pose a dilemma, and the lack of genetic diversity is of concern in light of Pila decline throughout South-east Asia. Our results highlight that conservation management of P. scutata and its congeners must therefore be better informed by greater taxonomic resolution and more comprehensive investigations of their ecology, both in native and introduced ranges.
This paper proposes a detailed investigation on the new neural-based feed-forward PID direct force control (FNN-PID-DF) approach applied to a highly nonlinear 2-axes pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) manipulator in order to ameliorate its force output performance. Founded on the novel inverse neural NARX model dynamically identified to learn well all nonlinear characteristics of the contact force dynamics of the 2-axes PAM-based manipulator, the novel proposed neural FNN-PID-DF force controller is innovatively implemented in order to directly force control the 2-axes PAM robot system used as a rehabilitation device subjected to internal systematic interactions and external contact force deviations. The performance of the experimental tests has proven the advantages and merits of the new force control method compared to the classical PID force control method. The new neural FNN-PID-DF force controller guides the wrist/hand of subject/patient to successfully generate the predefined desired force values.
The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.
In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Bénin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used separately for different target pests, neem oil mixed with B. bassiana and neem oil mixed with B. thuringiensis) were compared with a calendar-based treatment using synthetic insecticides and a control without insecticides. The bioinsecticide treatments were less effective than the calendar-based treatment at controlling cotton pests. There was no difference in yields and the number of damaged bolls in plots under treatments with the four bioinsecticide formulations, suggesting an absence of synergy between neem oil and B. bassiana and neem oil and B. thuringiensis. The numbers of natural enemies in all the bioinsecticide treatment plots and the control plots were similar and higher than those in the calendar-based treatment plots. The highest yield and profitability were obtained with the calendar-based treatment. Screening the compatibility of plant-based products and biopesticides through bioassays is essential for a successful application of their combinations in any integrated pest management strategy.
The government's cocoa spraying gangs in Ghana treat about two million hectares of the crop against black pod disease and mirids, the key insect pests of cocoa in West Africa, each August through to December, based on recommendations issued in the 1950s. A few cocoa farmers use additional pesticides. We studied the temporal distribution of two important mirid species, Distantiella theobroma (Dist.) and Sahlbergella singularis Hagl., in 1991, 1999, 2003 and 2012 to determine the appropriate timing for the application of control measures in current farming systems. There was a significant correlation between mirid abundance and pod availability on trees, as well as the number of basal shoots and the cocoa variety grown. Mirid populations peaked between January and April and from September to October. Surveys (interviews and focus group discussions involving over 300 farmers in 33 cocoa-growing districts) on pesticide use, sources of recommendations, and perceived successes and failures of current cocoa pest treatments suggested that the 1950 recommendations on the timing of insecticide application need revising.
Depression is common among older populations with cataract. However, the impact of cataract surgery on depression in both developed and developing countries remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms and to examine the association between objective visual measures and change in depressive symptoms after surgery among a Vietnamese population in Ho Chi Minh City.
A cohort of older patients with bilateral cataract were assessed the week before and one to three months after first eye surgery only or first- and second-eye cataract surgeries. Visual measures including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereopsis were obtained. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Descriptive analyses and a generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis were undertaken to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms.
Four hundred and thirteen participants were recruited into the study before cataract surgery. Two hundred and forty-seven completed the follow-up assessment after surgery. There was a significant decrease (improvement) of one point in the depressive symptoms score (p = 0.04) after cataract surgery, after accounting for potential confounding factors. In addition, females reported a significantly greater decrease (improvement) of two points in depressive symptom scores (p = 0.01), compared to males. However, contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and stereopsis were not significantly associated with change in depressive symptoms scores. First-eye cataract surgery or both-eye cataract surgery did not modify the change in depressive symptoms score.
There was a small but significant improvement in depressive symptoms score after cataract surgery for an older population in Vietnam.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
We discuss the principles of Optical interconnects, and discuss the potential of silicon photonics to provide all the necessary building blocks to construct dense, high-bandwidth, lowpower optical links. We discuss waveguides, wavelength division multiplexing, modulators and photodetectors. We also take a look at the options for implementing light sources, a function which silicon cannot natively provide, with a focus on implementations in the IMEC silicon photonics platform.
A systematic first-principles study was conducted on the stability of binary iron carbides. The calculations showed that all the binary iron carbides are unstable relative to the elemental solids (α-Fe and graphite). Apart from a cubic Fe23C6 phase, the energetically most favorable carbides exhibit hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Fesublattices. Structural relaxation of the hcp iron carbides was analyzed and discussed together with their relative thermodynamically stability. Finite-temperature analysis showed that contributions from lattice vibration and anomalous magnetic ordering (Curie-Weiss behavior), rather than from the conventional lattice mismatch with the matrix, are the origin of the high stability and predominance of cementite among the iron carbides in steels.