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Activists throughout Western Europe joined Southern actors in demanding a reform of global trade during the 1960s. This forum focuses on the subsequent trajectories of fair trade activism: the initiatives which aimed to achieve equitable economic relations between the South and the North. The evolution of this movement is situated within larger debates about social movements since the 1960s. The forum demonstrates the importance of a transnational perspective, particularly the impact of the global South and European integration. It highlights fair trade's broad constituency and the contested development of its goals and repertoire. The movement's trajectories challenge us to reassess how activists attempted to shape a post-colonial world in which consumption had become a predominant fact of life. Regarding this strand of activism as part of crucial post-war developments provides a fresh perspective on the history of transnational civic activism.
In 1968 Dutch activists launched a campaign focused on cane sugar as a symbol of unfair trading conditions for the global South. The history of the cane sugar campaign from 1968 to 1974 highlights how European integration provided hope for large-scale change and a common target. This led activists to establish European networks and campaigns. Its demise sheds new light on the new social movements’ shift from ‘grand politics’, aimed at a sudden and drastic transformation through global and European politics, towards incremental change by locally targeting specific companies and countries.
In many tropical areas schistosomiasis is a major health problem causing hepatosplenic, intestinal or urogenital complaints. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni is also characterized by blood coagulation abnormalities. Liver pathology plays a role in the development of haemostatic changes and the parasitic infection may directly affect coagulation. However, these contributing factors cannot be studied separately in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis infections. This pilot study provides insight in haemostatic changes in urinary schistosomiasis by studying coagulation parameters in schistosomiasis haematobium-infected Gabonese schoolchildren. Selection on urinary schistosomiasis patients without hepatosplenic complaints allows for the investigation of the direct effects of the parasite on haemostasis. Levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) antigen, active VWF and osteoprotegerin were elevated, indicating inflammation-mediated endothelial activation. In contrast to hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, thrombin–antithrombin complex and D-dimer levels were not affected. Despite its small sample size, this study clearly indicates that Schistosoma haematobium directly alters the activation status of the endothelium, without initiation of coagulation.
We provide an update on diagnostic methods for the detection of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) in men and highlight that satisfactory urine-antigen diagnostics for UGS lag much behind that for intestinal schistosomiasis, where application of a urine-based point-of-care strip assay, the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test, is now advocated. Making specific reference to male genital schistosomiasis (MGS), we place greater emphasis on parasitological detection methods and clinical assessment of internal genitalia with ultrasonography. Unlike the advances made in defining a clinical standard protocol for female genital schistosomiasis, MGS remains inadequately defined. Whilst urine filtration with microscopic examination for ova of Schistosoma haematobium is a convenient but error-prone proxy of MGS, we describe a novel low-cost sampling and direct visualization method for the enumeration of ova in semen. Using exemplar clinical cases of MGS from our longitudinal cohort study among fishermen along the shoreline of Lake Malawi, the portfolio of diagnostic needs is appraised including: the use of symptomatology questionnaires, urine analysis (egg count and CCA measurement), semen analysis (egg count, circulating anodic antigen measurement and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis) alongside clinical assessment with portable ultrasonography.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Stepped care for CFS, consisting of a minimal intervention followed by face-to-face CBT, was found efficacious when tested in a CFS specialist centre. Stepped care implemented in a community-based mental health centre (MHC) has not yet been evaluated.
(1) To test the effectiveness of stepped care for CFS implemented in a MHC at post-treatment and at long-term follow-up; and (2) compare post-treatment outcomes of implemented stepped care with treatment outcomes of a CFS specialist centre.
An uncontrolled study was used to test effectiveness of stepped care implemented in a MHC (n = 123). The outcomes of implemented care were compared with the outcomes of specialist care reported in previous studies (n = 583). Data on outcomes from implemented stepped care were gathered at post-treatment and at long-term follow-up. Mixed models were used as method of analysis.
Fatigue decreased and physical functioning increased significantly following implemented stepped care (both p < .001). The follow-up was completed by 94 patients (78%) within 1–6 years after treatment. Treatment effects were sustained to follow-up. Patients in the MHC showed less improvement directly following stepped care compared with patients in a CFS specialist centre (p < .01).
Implemented stepped care for CFS is effective with sustained treatment gains at long-term follow-up. There is room for improvement when compared with outcomes of a CFS specialist centre. Some suggestions are made on how to improve stepped care.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives and goals of this study are to (i) determine whether IBS-D patients randomized to either rifaximin or low FODMAP diet show improvement in IBS-related symptoms; and (2) identify using longitudinal analyses how SIBO status and fecal microbiota features associate with response to either rifaximin or low FODMAP dietary intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 42 patients ≥ 18 years of age who meet Rome IV criteria for IBS-D will be randomized to receive either rifaximin or low FODMAP diet intervention. The primary outcome will be the proportion of responders to intervention which is defined as ≥ 30% reduction in mean daily abdominal pain or bloating by visual analog scale compared with baseline. Exclusion criteria will include: (a) history of microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, or other organic disease that could explain symptoms, (b) prior gastrointestinal surgery, other than appendectomy or cholecystectomy > 6 months prior to study initiation, (c) prior use of rifaximin or formal dietary interventions for IBS-D, (d) use of antibiotics within the past 3 months, or (e) use of probiotics within 1 month of study entry. Glucose hydrogen breath tests will be performed at the beginning and end of the trial to evaluate for SIBO. Fecal samples will be collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks to determine changes in fecal microbial composition and structure. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study seeks to examine whether longitudinal analyses of small intestinal and colonic microbiota can subtype IBS-D subjects into clinically relevant phenotypes. A total of 18 subjects have been enrolled into the study. Clinical variables, hydrogen breath test results, and fecal microbiota data are being collected for ongoing analysis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results from this study may help move treatment of IBS from a purely symptom based approach to a more individualized approach by stratifying IBS-D patients into distinct clinical phenotypes which are amenable to targeted therapeutic approaches.
Lower intelligence quotient (IQ) has frequently been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether IQ declines (further) after illness onset and what the familial contribution is to this change. Therefore, we investigate IQ changes during the course of illness in patients with non-affective psychosis, their siblings and controls.
Data are part of the longitudinal Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants underwent three measurements, each approximately 3 years apart. A total of 1022 patients with non-affective psychosis [illness duration: 4.34 (s.d. = 4.50) years], 977 of their siblings, and 565 controls had at least one measure of IQ (estimated from four subtests of the WAIS-III).
At baseline, IQ was significantly lower in patients (IQ = 97.8) and siblings (IQ = 108.2; p < 0.0001) than in controls (IQ = 113.0; p < 0.0001), and in patients as compared with siblings (p < 0.0001). Over time, IQ increased in all groups. In siblings, improvement in IQ was significantly more pronounced (+0.7 points/year) than in patients (+0.5 points/year; p < 0.0001) and controls (+0.3 points/year; p < 0.0001). IQ increase was not significantly correlated with improvement in (sub)clinical outcome in any of the groups.
During the first 10 years of the illness, IQ increases to a similar (and subtle) extent in a relatively high-functioning group of schizophrenia patients and controls, despite the lower IQ in patients at baseline. In addition, the siblings’ IQ was intermediate at baseline, but over time the increase in IQ was more pronounced.
Few studies have examined the concurrent effects of physical disease and systemic inflammation on suicide risk in patients with depression. The authors investigated the independent contributions of chronic physical disease and systemic inflammation as indexed by C-reactive protein (CRP), on risk of suicide attempt.
In this case–control study, 1468 cases of suicide attempters and 14 373 controls, both aged 18–65 years with a diagnosis of depression during 2011–2015, were identified from the hospital-wide database. Regression models were implemented to identify separate effects of physical diseases and systemic inflammation indexed by CRP, on risk of suicide attempt.
Compared with having no physical disease, having one, two, and three or more physical diseases was associated with a 3.6-, 6.4-, and 14.9-fold increase in odds of making a suicide attempt, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In a sub-sample of cases and controls with available CRP values, patients with high CRP (>3 mg/L) had 1.9 times the odds of suicide attempt compared with patients with low CRP (<1 mg/L). This association was no longer significant when controlling for the effect of physical disease.
The presence of physical disease is an important risk factor for suicide attempt among patients with depression. Systemic inflammation is likewise associated with increased risk for suicide attempt, however, this association appears to be accounted for by the presence of physical disease among patients receiving care in a medical center setting. Healthcare providers should consider the risk of suicide attempt in depressed patients burdened with multiple comorbidities.
Short screeners for assessing dietary quality are lacking in Asia. We recently developed a short thirty-seven-item diet screener (DS). The present study aimed to evaluate reproducibility and relative validity of the DS in assessing a priori dietary quality indices (DQI; i.e. the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMed) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet) and intakes of selected foods.
DS administration and biomarker measurement took place twice within a 4-month interval. A 163-item FFQ was administered one month after the second DS administration.
Singapore, a multi-ethnic urban Asian country.
Singapore residents (n 161) aged 18–79 years, of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity.
Reproducibility coefficients for the two DS were 0·71 (DQI) and 0·65 (food groups). Correlations (ρ) between mean DS and FFQ DQI scores were 0·51 (AHEI-2010), 0·50 (aMed) and 0·61 (DASH; all P<0·05). Cohen’s weighted kappa indicated moderate agreement between the two measures (κw=0·48–0·58). DS DQI scores were associated with concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin (AHEI-2010, ρ=0·26; P<0·05), odd-chain SFA (aMed, ρ=0·24; DASH, ρ=0·25; both P<0·05), and enterolactone, total carotenoids, PUFA and α-linolenic acid (all scores, ρ=0·17–0·30; all P<0·05). Scores were not associated with isoflavone or long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations.
A short screener can be used to assess DQI with good reproducibility and relative validity compared with a longer FFQ in an Asian population.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are 2-fold: (1) to determine if maternal schistosomiasis affects maternal immunity to tetanus and/or transplacental transfer of antitetanus toxoid (TT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to infant and (2) determine the influence of maternal schistosomiasis on infant BCG vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study will utilize blood samples from a historic cohort of 100 mother-infant pairs from Kisumu, Kenya, a schistosomiasis-endemic area. For the first aim, we will evaluate maternal schistosomal circulating anodic antigen, which has improved sensitivity and specificity to detect active schistosomiasis from serum, and antisoluble egg antigen IgG positivity compared with quantitative maternal anti-TT IgG at delivery and anti-TT IgG cord blood to maternal blood ratio (cord:maternal ratio). For the second aim, we will evaluate association between maternal schistosomiasis as detected by circulating anodic antigen and antisoluble egg antigen IgG at delivery and infant BCG-specific Th1-cytokine positive CD4+ cells at 10 weeks following BCG vaccination at birth. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that active maternal schistosomiasis will be associated with decreased maternal anti-TT IgG and reduced efficiency of transplacental transfer, as measured by infant cord blood to maternal blood ratio of anti-TT IgG. We also expect that maternal schistosomiasis will be associated with decreased infant immunogenicity to BCG vaccine. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is a formative study on infant vaccine immunity using laboratory methodology not previously applied. Understanding infant immunity in the setting of maternal schistosomiasis will inform vaccination strategies and tailor vaccine development in schistosome-endemic areas such as Kenya, where neither TB nor neonatal tetanus have been eradicated. Additionally, our results will inform public health policies to consider integration of antischistosomal agents in antenatal care.
Day hospital mentalization-based treatment (MBT-DH) is a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) but its evidence base is still limited. This multi-site randomized trial compared the efficacy of MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service v. specialist treatment as usual (S-TAU) tailored to the individual needs of patients, and offered by a well-established treatment service.
Two mental healthcare institutes in The Netherlands participated in the study. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for BPD and had a score of ⩾20 on the borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI) were randomly allocated to MBT-DH (N = 54) or S-TAU (N = 41). The primary outcome variable was the total score on the BPDSI. Secondary outcome variables included symptom severity, quality of life, and interpersonal functioning. Data were collected at baseline and every 6 months until 18-month follow-up, and were analyzed using multilevel analyses based on intention-to-treat principles.
Both treatments were associated with significant improvements in all outcome variables. MBT-DH was not superior to S-TAU on any outcome variable. MBT-DH was associated with higher acceptability in BPD patients compared v. S-TAU, reflected in significantly higher early drop-out rates in S-TAU (34%) v. MBT-DH (9%).
MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service is as effective as specialist TAU in The Netherlands in the treatment of BPD at 18-month follow-up. Further research is needed to investigate treatment outcomes in the longer term and the cost-effectiveness of these treatments.
Several previous prospective studies suggest that consumption of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between consumption of different types of vegetables in relation to T2D risk in an Asian Population. We included 45 411 participants (age range: 45–74 years) of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) free of diabetes, cancer or CVD at baseline (1993–1998). Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Physician-diagnosed incident diabetes was reported at follow-up I (1999–2004) and II (2006–2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI of T2D risk. An updated meta-analysis was also conducted to summarise results for green leafy and cruciferous vegetables. During 494 741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 incident T2D occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither total vegetables (top v. bottom quintile HR=1·08; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·18, Ptrend=0·66) nor specific vegetables including dark green leafy vegetables (HR=1·05; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·15, Ptrend=0·21) and cruciferous vegetables (HR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·06, Ptrend=0·29) were substantially associated with risk of T2D. A meta-analysis (eleven studies with 754 729 participants and 58 297 cases) including the SCHS and all previous prospective studies suggested borderline significant inverse associations between green leafy (summary relative risk (RR)=0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00) and cruciferous vegetable consumption (RR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·00) and T2D risk, with moderate-to-high heterogeneity. In conclusion, green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption was not substantially associated with risk of T2D in an Asian population. Meta-analysis of available cohort data indicated that evidence for a beneficial effect of green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption on T2D risk is not convincing.
Access to social support contributes to feelings of independence and better social health. This qualitative study aims to investigate multi-informant perspectives on informal social support in dementia care networks.
Ten spousal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) completed an ecogram, a social network card and a semi-structured interview. The ecogram aimed to trigger subjective experiences regarding social support. Subsequently, 17 network members were interviewed. The qualitative analyses identified codes, categories, and themes.
Sixth themes emerged: (1) barriers to ask for support; (2) facilitators to ask for support; (3) barriers to offer support; (4) facilitators to offer support; (5) a mismatch between supply and demand of social support; and (6) openness in communication to repair the imbalance.
Integrating social network perspectives resulted in a novel model identifying a mismatch between the supply and demand of social support, strengthened by a cognitive bias: caregivers reported to think for other social network members and vice versa. Openness in communication in formal and informal care systems might repair this mismatch.
Objectives: A wealth of studies provide evidence for action simulation during language comprehension. Recent research suggests such action simulations might be sensitive to fine-grained information, such as speed. Here, we present a crucial test for action simulation of speed in language by assessing speed comprehension in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Based on the patients’ motor deficits, we hypothesized that the speed of motion described in language would modulate their performance in semantic tasks. Specifically, they would have more difficulty processing language about relatively fast speed than language about slow speed. Methods: We conducted a semantic similarity judgment task on fast and slow action verbs in patients with PD and age-matched healthy controls. Participants had to decide which of two verbs most closely matched a target word. Results: Compared to controls, PD patients were slower making judgments about fast action verbs, but not for judgments about slow action verbs, suggesting impairment in processing language about fast action. Moreover, this impairment was specific to verbs describing fast action performed with the hand. Conclusions: Problems moving quickly lead to difficulties comprehending language about moving quickly. This study provides evidence that speed is an important part of action representations. (JINS, 2017, 23, 412–420)