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One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
Standard external beam radiotherapy is a treatment option for patients with localised prostate cancer and is used in patients with low-, intermediate- and high-risk disease with androgen deprivation according to the risk of the disease. In the last few years, hypofractionated radiotherapy has been demonstrated to be as safe as standard radiotherapy if given over a shorter time than standard radiotherapy with larger doses per fraction. External radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer typically delivers 37–42 fractions of 1·8–2·0 Gy per fraction given 5 days per week over 7·5–8·5 weeks. Hypofractionated radiotherapy delivers 20–28 fractions of 2·5–2·6 Gy per fraction given 5 days per week over 4–5·6 weeks.
A retrospective analysis of assessment of 30 patients was undertaken from 2016 to 2018. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2-year outcomes of 30 patients with prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy 70 Gy in 28 fractions.
Biochemical failure with hypofractionated radiotherapy was found in a total of 20% of patients. In the classification by risk groups, there were no biochemical failures in low-risk patients; in the low intermediate course, 3·3% of patients; in the high intermediate group, 3·3% patients; and in the high-risk group, the largest documented biochemical failure was in 13·3% of patients. For acute urinary toxicity, grade I was 56·6%; grade II, 6·6%. For acute rectal toxicity, grade I was 46·6%; grade II, 3·3%.
This is one of the first studies of hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer in Latin America, and the results of this study demonstrated that the outcomes were similar to the standard regimen in all risk groups.
Verbal working memory span is decreased in patients with schizophrenia, and this might contribute to impairment in higher cognitive functions as well as to the formation of certain clinical symptoms. Processing speed has been identified as a crucial factor in cognitive efficiency in this population. We tested the hypothesis that decreased processing speed underlies the verbal working memory deficit in patients and mediates the associations between working memory span and clinical symptoms.
Forty-nine schizophrenia inpatients recruited from units for chronic and acute patients, and forty-five healthy participants, were involved in the study. Verbal working memory span was assessed by means of the letter-number span. The Digit Copy test was used to assess motor speed, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to assess cognitive speed.
The working memory span was significantly impaired in patients (F(1,90) = 4.6, P < 0.05). However, the group difference was eliminated when either the motor or the cognitive speed measure was controlled (F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.86, and F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.88). In the patient group, working memory span was significantly correlated with negative symptoms (r = –0.52, P < 0.0001) and thought disorganisation (r = –0.34, P < 0.025) scores. Regression analyses showed that the association with negative symptoms was no longer significant when the motor speed measure was controlled (β = –0.12, P = 0.20), while the association with thought disorganisation was no longer significant when the cognitive speed measure was controlled (β = –0.10, P = 0.26).
Decrement in motor and cognitive speed plays a significant role in both the verbal working memory impairment observed in patients and the associations between verbal working memory impairment and clinical symptoms.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder which involves chronic or recurrent psychosis and it is commonly associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning. Antipsychotic medications are a first-line treatment, however, most patients experience disabling impairment even after benefiting from antipsychotics, including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, poor social functioning and episodes of acute symptomatic relapse.
Systematic literature review in UpToDate and Pubmed.
To identify the most relevant intervention areas of systematic rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
45 years old schizophrenic male who admitted in a Medium Stay Psychiatry Unit with severe behavioural impairment and psychotic symptoms. At least 10 hospitalizations and pronounced disability in basic life skills despite optimal treatment. Poor insight and compliance, frequent relapses, co-morbid substance abuse and difficult family support. Clozapine was added to his treatment with improvement in psychotic symptoms. A multidisciplinary intervention was also done and he was discharged home with important improvement in social skills, better insight and familiar functioning
Despite following an adequate antipsychotic treatment, including Clozapine as the main medication in resistant schizophrenia, it is often partially effective with severe impairments in social and occupational functioning. Family-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training, added to this medication seem to be essential in the systematic treatment of schizoprenia. It includes a multidisciplinary team and a specific length of time but it is based on the patient's status. Despite evidence of their efectiveness, the availability of these interventions varies widely, as does the availability of clinicians to provide them.
To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety.
The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = −0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.41 to −0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33–65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), hours of cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p < 0.001) and type of disorder (p = 0.008), explaining an 82% of variance.
Relaxation seems to be less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.
From the saprotrophs that decay plant material to the pathogens and mutualists that shape plant demography at local and regional scales, fungi are major drivers of tropical forest dynamics. Although endophytic fungi are abundant and diverse in many biomes, they reach their greatest diversity in tropical forests, where they can influence plant physiology, performance and survival. The number of quantitative studies regarding endophytes has increased dramatically in the past two decades, but general rules have not yet emerged regarding the biogeography, host affiliations, local or regional distributions, or phylogenetic diversity of endophytes in most tropical settings. Here, endophytic fungal communities associated with 18 species of eupolypod fern were compared among forest reserves in Panama, Costa Rica and Mexico. Molecular sequence data for >2000 isolates were used to determine the relationships of host taxonomy, forest (site), and environmental dissimilarity to endophyte community composition. Communities in related ferns differed significantly among forests, reflecting the interplay of geographic distance and environmental dissimilarity. Although the same phyla and classes of fungi were prevalent at each site, they differed in relative abundance. All sites were dominated by the same order (Xylariales), but sites differed in the phylogenetic clustering vs. evenness of their endophyte communities. By addressing the relationship of endophyte communities to host taxonomy, geographic distance and environmental factors, this study complements previous work on angiosperms and contributes to a growing perspective on the factors shaping communities of ecologically important fungi in tropical forests.
Highly accreting quasars are possible cosmological probes, as their Eddington ratio is expected to saturate toward values of order unity. We present preliminary estimates of redshift- independent source luminosities and the Hubble diagram for quasars in the redshift range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 2.6.
We analyzed the light curves (LCs) of several radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars belonging to the same parameter space volume in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) quasar sequence, using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). We report preliminary results on detected variability pattern, and discuss possible cases of periodic variability.
The Caribbean island of Mona, on a key Atlantic route from Europe to the Americas, was at the heart of sixteenth-century Spanish colonial projects. Communities on the island were exposed to the earliest waves of European impact during a critical period of transformation and the forging of new identities. One of many caves within an extensive subterranean world on the island was marked both by indigenous people and by the first generations of Europeans to arrive in the New World. This account of spiritual encounters provides a rare, personalised insight into intercultural religious dynamics in the early Americas.
As an extreme kind of environment, Hickson Compact groups (HCGs) have shown to be very complex systems. HI-VLA observations revealed an intrincated network of HI tails and bridges, tracing pre-processing through extreme tidal interactions. We found HCGs to show a large HI deficiency supporting an evolutionary sequence where gas-rich groups transform via tidal interactions and ISM (interstellar medium) stripping into gas-poor systems. We detected as well a diffuse HI component in the groups, increasing with evolutionary phase, although with uncertain distribution. The complex net of detected HI as observed with the VLA seems hence so puzzling as the missing one. In this talk we revisit the existing VLA information on the HI distribution and kinematics of HCGs by means of X3D visualization. X3D constitutes a powerful tool to extract the most from HI data cubes and a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3-D) diagrams.
Compact groups of galaxies (CGG) have revealed some interesting problems from their origin and lifetime to the evolution of their members in such dense configurations. Some authors suppose that CGG probably are the best location for AGNs in the local Universe. According to our preliminary data about 7–10% of member galaxies in Shahbazian compact groups (SHCGs) are emission-line galaxies including the broad-line AGN and the narrow emission-line galaxies. Shahbazian 355/4 is a classical Seyfert 1 galaxy at the same redshift as host group. Moreover Shahbazian 278/4 is also a broad-line AGN in an early-type galaxy. This is the first emission-line object in SHCGs. Meanwhile there is no Seyfert 1 galaxy among the spectroscopically investigated galaxies in the South compact groups, although more than 70% of the member galaxies in these groups probably have an active nucleus. The UZC- compact groups have an excess of Seyfert 2s (but not Seyfert 1s!). Further observational studies are necessary to understand such and many other questions related to the puzzle of CGG.
This paper aims to investigate the potential interest of using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) based on GPRS/GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology to obtain a better estimation of fishing activity and distribution of a small-scale artisanal fleet, for which the European satellite-based system is not available. Since the early 1980s, the artisanal fishery targeting blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), commonly known as “voraz”, has been developing along the Strait of Gibraltar area. Up to now the fishing effort was estimated using the number of sales, a proxy for the number of fishing days. This measure does not, however, capture the “missing effort”, i.e., fishing days resulting in no catch or not enough catch to be sold at public auction. The European satellite-based VMS provides information about the dynamics of different fishing fleets, but is not installed on small vessels (<15 m), such as those used by the artisanal “voracera” fleet targeting blackspot seabream in the Strait of Gibraltar. The Andalucía Regional Government installed its own vessel monitoring system on several artisanal fleets using GPRS/GSM cellular network technology that sends data on vessel positions and speed every three minutes. Data collected from 2009 to 2011 using this system were filtered and analysed to estimate fishing effort, catch rates and the spatial distribution of the blackspot seabream fishery. The estimates obtained seem to provide a good representation of fishery reality. As expected, the missing effort increases as the resource levels decrease. Additionally, expert knowledge of the fishery allowed application of an algorithm for splitting these daily trips into estimated fishing hauls. Afterwards the spatial distribution of catches and Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) could be obtained linking VMS locations with landings information. This study provides a considerably finer spatial scale view of the fishery than data available in the past.
The metapopulation framework stemming from Levins’s (1969, 1970) seminal concept and which evolved into a modern ecological theory (Hanski & Gilpin, 1997; Hanski, 1999a, 1999b; Hanski & Gaggiotti, 2004; Kritzer & Sale, 2006) is based on the development of ideas from, and applications to, terrestrial systems. However, key environmental differences exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, such as the larger scale of chemical, material and organism transport resulting in the greater “openness” of local marine environments (Carr et al., 2003; Sale et al., 2006) and higher marine population connectivity. There are relatively few barriers that might delineate dispersal and migration in the ocean compared with those in terrestrial or freshwater environments that are physically fragmented into discrete patches of habitat supporting discrete local populations (Waples, 1998). Further terrestrial-marine differences with relevance for the application of metapopulation theory in marine systems are the high per capita fecundity and dispersal potential of many marine species, leading to a more open spatial structure of the populations (via decoupling of local offspring production from recruitment to a parental population; see, e.g., Roughgarden et al., 1988; Carr et al., 2003; Kinlan & Gaines, 2003; Sale et al., 2006).
This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A “D” score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.
We address the effect of spatial scale and temporal variation on model generality when forming predictive models for fish assignment using a new data mining approach, Random Forests (RF), to variable biological markers (parasite community data). Models were implemented for a fish host-parasite system sampled along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain and were validated using independent datasets. We considered 2 basic classification problems in evaluating the importance of variations in parasite infracommunities for assignment of individual fish to their populations of origin: multiclass (2–5 population models, using 2 seasonal replicates from each of the populations) and 2-class task (using 4 seasonal replicates from 1 Atlantic and 1 Mediterranean population each). The main results are that (i) RF are well suited for multiclass population assignment using parasite communities in non-migratory fish; (ii) RF provide an efficient means for model cross-validation on the baseline data and this allows sample size limitations in parasite tag studies to be tackled effectively; (iii) the performance of RF is dependent on the complexity and spatial extent/configuration of the problem; and (iv) the development of predictive models is strongly influenced by seasonal change and this stresses the importance of both temporal replication and model validation in parasite tagging studies.
The Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ) was designed to measure sexual attraction (Fernández, Quiroga, & Rodríguez, 2006), because the current questionnaires were considered inadequate. The purpose of this research was to test whether the SAQ factors remain meaningful after several years (stability) and whether the Italian version is equivalent to the Spanish one (consistency). Three groups of university students participated: two from Spain (n = 182 and 255, respectively) and one from Italy (n = 293). The Spanish groups were tested with a 7-year interval (2001-2008). The Italian group was tested in 2008. The main hypotheses were to test, across time interval and countries: (a) factor congruence, (b) predictive power of factors (proportion of variance accounted for), and (c) scale reliability. Sexual attraction typology also was analyzed, within and between countries, to test the validity of the underlying theoretical model. The results obtained show that the SAQ factor structure remains the same, the resulting factors have high predictive power, and the SAQ scales are highly reliable. Sexual dimorphism and sexual attraction typology are highly associated, thus validating the underlying theoretical model.
We examined the patterns of composition and structure of parasite communities in the Mediterranean sparid fish Boops boops along a gradient of fish sizes, using a large sample from a single population. We tested the hypothesis that species forming the core of the bogue parasite fauna (i.e. species which have a wide geographical range and are responsible for recognizable community structure) appear early in the fish ontogeny. The sequential community development observed supported the prediction that core species appear in the fish population earlier than rare and stochastic species. There was also a strong correlation between the order of ‘arrival’ of the species and their overall prevalence. Six key species were responsible for recognizable community structure across size/age cohorts; the addition to this baseline community of key parasite species resulted in a nested structure that is linked to differential species abundance rather than fish size. Information on the life-cycles, distribution and host range of the parasites is used to explain the observed patterns of parasite community structure. We conclude that the small mouth size of B. boops coupled with suction feeding may provide a setting for passive sampling as a mechanism leading to non-random parasite community structure.