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In Ireland, traditionally, most public Adult Mental Health Services (AMHSs) had a small cohort of service users with eating disorders (EDs) in their service. However, over the last 5 years, the National Clinical Programmes have been encouraging Mental Health Services to develop ED programmes in each catchment area. This has culminated in a model of care for EDs for children and adults. It appears that in relation to AMHSs, meaningful inclusion of families/significant other(s) in ED programmes is somewhat inconsistent. This paper will discuss the possible impact of excluding or minimising family/significant other(s)’ inclusion. It will also outline a suggested approach of including families/significant other(s) in a meaningful way in an out-patient ED programme.
Objectives: To adequately monitor the course of cognitive functioning in persons with moderate to severe dementia, relevant cognitive tests for the advanced dementia stages are needed. We examined the ability of a test developed for the advanced dementia stages, the Severe Impairment Battery Short version (SIB-S), to measure cognitive change over time. Second, we examined type of memory impairment measured with the SIB-S in different dementia stages. Methods: Participants were institutionalized persons with moderate to severe dementia (N = 217). The SIB-S was administered at 6-month intervals during a 2-year period. Dementia severity at baseline was classified according to Global Deterioration Scale criteria. We used mixed models to evaluate the course of SIB-S total and domain scores, and whether dementia stage at baseline affected these courses. Results: SIB-S total scores declined significantly over time, and the course of decline differed significantly between dementia stages at baseline. Persons with moderately severe dementia declined faster in mean SIB-S total scores than persons with moderate or severe dementia. Between persons with moderate and moderately severe dementia, there was only a difference in the rate of decline of semantic items, but not episodic and non-semantic items. Conclusions: Although modest floor and slight ceiling effects were noted in severe and milder cases, respectively, the SIB-S proved to be one of few available adequate measures of cognitive change in institutionalized persons with moderate to severe dementia. (JINS, 2019, 25, 204–214)
We present 12-month follow-up results for a randomised controlled trial of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in 85 (78.8%) participants with psychotic disorder and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Positive effects on clinician-rated PTSD, self-rated PTSD, depression, paranoid-referential thinking and remission from schizophrenia were maintained up to 12-month follow-up. Negative post-traumatic cognitions declined in prolonged exposure and were stable in EMDR. A significant decline in social functioning was found, whereas reductions in interference of PTSD symptoms with social functioning were maintained. These results support that current PTSD guidelines apply to individuals with psychosis.
Declaration of interest
M.v.d.G. and D.v.d.B. receive income for published books on psychotic disorders and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in the treatment of psychotic disorders. A.d.J. receives income for published books on EMDR therapy and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in this method. A.v.M. receives income for published book chapters on PTSD and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in prolonged exposure. C.d.R. receives income for the training of postdoctoral professionals in EMDR therapy.
Background: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been used to treat a variety of fears and phobias. Aim: To determine the feasibility (i.e. safety and efficacy) of using VRET to treat dental phobia. Method: Safety was evaluated by determining any adverse events or symptom exacerbation. Efficacy of VRET was evaluated by comparing the reduction in dental anxiety scores (measured 16 times within a 14-week study period, and at 6-month follow-up), and its behavioural effects with that of an informational pamphlet (IP) on ten randomized patients with dental phobia using a controlled multiple baseline design. Participants’ heart rate response during VRET, and their experience post-VRET, were indexed. Results: No personal adverse events or symptom exacerbation occurred. Visual analysis and post-hoc intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in dental anxiety scores [higher PND (percentage of non-overlap data) scores of 100% and lower POD (percentage of overlap data) of 0%, Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, F (1,8) = 8.61, p = 0.019, and Dental Fear Scale, F (1,8) = 10.53, p = 0.012], and behavioural avoidance in the VRET compared with the IP group [d = 4.2 and –1.4, respectively). There was no increase in average heart rate during VRET. Of the nine treatment completers, six (four from the VRET group and two from the IP group) no longer had dental phobia at 6-month follow-up. Four of the five VRET participants, but none of the IP participants, scheduled a dental treatment appointment following the intervention. Conclusion: VRET is a feasible alternative for patients with dental phobia.
To identify causes of stress at work as well as individual, organisational and personal interventions used by employees to manage stress in public, private and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 51 employees from a range of organisations.
Participants reported adverse working conditions and management practices as common causes of work stress. Stress-inducing management practices included unrealistic demands, lack of support, unfair treatment, low decision latitude, lack of appreciation, effort–reward imbalance, conflicting roles, lack of transparency and poor communication. Organisational interventions were perceived as effective if they improved management styles, and included physical exercise, taking breaks and ensuring adequate time for planning work tasks. Personal interventions used outside of work were important to prevent and remedy stress.
Interventions should improve management practices as well as promoting personal interventions outside of the work setting.
This study presents secondary analyses of a recently published trial in which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with psychosis (n = 108) underwent 8 sessions of trauma-focused treatment, either prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. 24.1% fulfilled the criteria for the dissociative subtype, a newly introduced PTSD subtype in DSM-5. Treatment outcome was compared for patients with and without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD showed large reductions in clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) score, comparable with patients without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. It is concluded that even in a population with severe mental illness, patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD do benefit from trauma-focused treatments without a pre-phase of emotion regulation skill training and should not be excluded from these treatments.
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a first-line treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some clinicians argue that with refugees, directly targeting traumatic memories through EMDR may be harmful or ineffective.
To determine the safety and efficacy of EMDR in adult refugees with PTSD (trial registration: ISRCTN20310201).
In total, 72 refugees referred for specialised treatment were randomly assigned to 12 h of EMDR (3×60 min planning/preparation followed by 6×90 min desensitisation/reprocessing) or 12 h (12×60 min) of stabilisation. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were primary outcome measures.
Intention-to-treat analyses found no differences in safety (one severe adverse event in the stabilisation condition only) or efficacy (effect sizes: CAPS –0.04 and HTQ 0.20) between the two conditions.
Directly targeting traumatic memories through 12 h of EMDR in refugee patients needing specialised treatment is safe, but is only of limited efficacy.
In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown
In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for psychosis (61.3% schizophrenic disorder, 29% schizoaffective disorder) were randomized to eight sessions prolonged exposure (PE; n = 53) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) (n = 55), or a waiting-list condition (WL, n = 47) for treatment of their co-morbid PTSD. Measures were performed on (1) psychosis: severity of delusions (PSYRATS-DRS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), auditory verbal hallucinations (PSYRATS-AHRS), and remission from psychotic disorder (SCI-SR-PANSS); (2) depression (BDI-II); (3) social functioning (PSP). Outcomes were compared at baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up and over all data points.
Both PE and EMDR were significantly associated with less severe paranoid thoughts post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up, and with more patients remitting from schizophrenia, at post-treatment (PE and EMDR) and over time (PE). Moreover, PE was significantly associated with a greater reduction of depression at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Auditory verbal hallucinations and social functioning remained unchanged.
In patients with chronic psychotic disorders PE and EMDR not only reduced PTSD symptoms, but also paranoid thoughts. Importantly, in PE and EMDR more patients accomplished the status of their psychotic disorder in remission. Clinically, these effects are highly relevant and provide empirical support to the notion that delivering PTSD treatment to patients with psychotic disorders and PTSD deserves increasing recognition and acceptance among clinicians.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Rapid reliable identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted research efforts.
We explored the concordance in attribution of motor subtypes between the Delirium Motor Subtyping Scale 4 (DMSS-4) and the original Delirium Motor Subtyping Scale (DMSS) (assessed cross-sectionally) and subtypes defined longitudinally using the Delirium Symptom Interview (DSI).
We included 113 elderly patients developing DSM-IV delirium after hip-surgery [mean age 86.9 ± 6.6 years; range 65–102; 68.1% females; 25 (22.1%) had no previous history of cognitive impairment]. Concordance for the first measurement was high for both the DMSS-4 and original DMSS (k = 0.82), and overall for the DMSS-4 and DSI (k = 0.84). The DMSS-4 also demonstrated high internal consistency (McDonald's omega = 0.90). The DSI more often allocated an assessment to “no subtype” compared to the DMSS-4 and DMSS-11, which showed higher inclusion rates for motor subtypes.
The DMSS-4 provides a rapid method of identifying motor-defined clinical subtypes of delirium and appears to be a reliable alternative to the more detailed and time-consuming original DMSS and DSI methods of subtype attribution. The DMSS-4, so far translated into three languages, can be readily applied to further studies of causation, treatment and outcome in delirium.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in patients with a psychotic disorder. Because a PTSD diagnosis is often missed in patients with psychosis in routine care, a valid screening instrument could be helpful.
To determine the validity of the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) as a screening tool for PTSD among individuals with psychotic disorders.
Among 2608 patients with a psychotic disorder, the rate of trauma exposure was determined and the TSQ was administered to screen for PTSD. PTSD status was verified in 455 patients using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (trial registration: ISRCTN 79584912).
Trauma exposure was reported by 78.2% of the 2608 patients. PTSD prevalence was estimated at 16% (95% CI 14.6–17.4%) compared with 0.5% reported in the patients' clinical charts. A TSQ cut-off score of six predicted PTSD with 78.8% sensitivity, 75.6% specificity, 44.5% correct positives and 93.6% correct negatives.
The TSQ seems to be a valid screening tool for PTSD in patients with a psychotic disorder.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are highly prevalent in dementia. The recently developed Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) includes clinical judgment and new symptom domains. Our objective was to evaluate NPI-C reliability and to compare caregiver and clinician ratings across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment.
This is a cross-sectional observational study. Participants were geriatric memory clinic patients and nursing-home residents (n = 30) with an established diagnosis of dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A psychiatrist (MK) interviewed caregiver–patient dyads using the NPI-C. Neuropsychological tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognitive impairment. Two NPI-C caregiver interviews were videotaped and rated by psychologists and geriatricians. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were used to examine inter-rater agreement. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate caregiver and psychiatrist NPI-C ratings. Disagreement between caregiver and clinician was expressed in delta scores and examined across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment, using Levene's homogeneity of variances tests.
Inter-rater agreement on ratings of two caregiver videos was high (ICC = 0.99–1.0). Clinician–caregiver concordance on NPI-C total severity ratings was high (r = 0.77). Variability in clinician–caregiver concordance was associated with cognitive impairment: MMSE (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R (Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised) total scores (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R Memory scores (P = 0.04) and Language scores (P = 0.01).
The NPI-C is a reliable measure of NPS in patients with MCI or dementia. Clinician–caregiver agreement on NPS severity may vary with cognitive impairment, underlining the importance of clinician-based measures of NPS.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings.
A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria.
Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63).
The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.
Nano-sizing and scaffolding have emerged in the past decade as important strategies to control the kinetics, reversibility, and equilibrium pressure for hydrogen storage in light metal hydride systems. Reducing the size of metal hydrides to the nanometer range allows fast kinetics for both hydrogen release and subsequent uptake. Reversibility of the hydrogen release is impressively facilitated by nanoconfining the materials in a carbon or metal–organic framework scaffold, in particular for reactions involving multiple solid phases, such as the decomposition of LiBH4, NaBH4, and NaAlH4. More complex is the impact of nanoconfinement on phase equilibria. It is clear that equilibrium pressures, and even decomposition pathways, are changed. However, further experimental and computational studies are essential to understand the exact origins of these effects and to unravel the role of particle size, physical confinement, and interfaces. Nevertheless, it has become clear that nanoconfinement is a strong tool to change physicochemical properties of metal hydrides, which might not only be of relevance for hydrogen storage, but also for other applications such as rechargeable batteries.
Background: Delirium is a risk factor for long-term cognitive impairment and dementia. Yet, the nature of these cognitive deficits is unknown as is the extent to which the persistence of delirium symptoms and presence of depression at follow-up may account for the association between delirium and cognitive impairment at follow-up. We hypothesized that inattention, as an important sign of persistent delirium and/or depression, is an important feature of the cognitive profile three months after hospital discharge of patients who experienced in-hosptial delirium.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. Fifty-three patients aged 75 years and older were admitted for surgical repair of acute hip fracture. Before the surgery, baseline characteristics, depressive symptomatology, and global cognitive performance were documented. The presence of delirium was assessed daily during hospital admission and three months after hospital discharge when patients underwent neuropsychological assessment.
Results: Of 27 patients with in-hospital delirium, 5 were still delirious after three months. Patients with in-hospital delirium (but free of delirium at follow-up) showed poorer performance than patients without in-hospital delirium on tests of global cognition and episodic memory, even after adjustment for age, gender, and baseline cognitive impairment. In contrast, no differences were found on tests of attention. Patients with in-hospital delirium showed an increase of depressive symptoms after three months. However, delirium remained associated with poor performance on a range of neuropsychological tests among patients with few or no signs of depression at follow-up.
Conclusion: Elderly hip fracture patients with in-hospital delirium experience impairments in global cognition and episodic memory three months after hospital discharge. Our results suggest that inattention, as a cardinal sign of persistent delirium or depressive symptomatology at follow-up, cannot fully account for the poor cognitive outcome associated with delirium.
Background: Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied.
Methods: For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and cognitive functioning were assessed preoperatively. During hospital admission, presence of delirium was assessed daily. Three months after hospital discharge, affective and global cognitive functioning was evaluated again in patients free from delirium at the time of this follow-up. This study compared baseline characteristics and affective functioning between patients with and without in-hospital delirium. We investigated whether in-hospital delirium is associated with increased anxiety and depressive levels, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms three months after discharge.
Results: Among 53 eligible patients, 23 (43.4%) patients experienced in-hospital delirium after hip fracture repair. Patients who had experienced in-hospital delirium showed more depressive symptoms at follow-up after three months compared to the 30 patients without in-hospital delirium. This association persisted in a multivariate model controlling for age, baseline cognition, baseline depressive symptoms, and living situation. The level of anxiety and symptoms of PTSD at follow-up did not differ between both groups.
Conclusion: This study suggests that in-hospital delirium is associated with an increased burden of depressive symptoms three months after discharge in elderly patients who were admitted to the hospital for surgical repair of hip fracture. Symptoms of depression in patients with previous in-hospital delirium cannot be fully explained by persistent (sub)syndromal delirium or baseline cognitive impairment.
Trauma-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated response patterns.
To compare the efficacy and response pattern of a trauma-focused CBT modality, brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD, with EMDR (trial registration: ISRCTN64872147).
Out-patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70) or EMDR (n = 70) and assessed at all sessions on self-reported PTSD (Impact of Event Scale – Revised). Other outcomes were clinician-rated PTSD, anxiety and depression.
Both treatments were equally effective in reducing PTSD symptom severity, but the response pattern indicated that EMDR led to a significantly sharper decline in PTSD symptoms than brief eclectic psychotherapy, with similar drop-out rates (EMDR: n = 20 (29%), brief eclectic psychotherapy: n = 25 (36%)). Other outcome measures confirmed this pattern of results.
Although both treatments are effective, EMDR results in a faster recovery compared with the more gradual improvement with brief eclectic psychotherapy.