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Ruddy-headed Goose Chloephaga rubidiceps is the smallest of the five South American sheldgeese and has two separate populations: one sedentary, which resides in the Malvinas/Falkland Islands and one migratory that overwinters mainly in the Pampas region, Argentina and breeds in Southern Patagonia. The Ruddy-headed Goose’s continental population has decreased considerably, and recent estimates indicated that the population size is less than 800 individuals. In Argentina and Chile, this population is categorised as endangered. Understanding migration across vast landscapes is essential for the identification of factors affecting the survival of this endangered population and for the application of effective conservation measures. We aim to provide the first documentation of the complete migration cycle of Ruddy-headed Goose, and to analyse their annual migration in detail, including identification of stop-over, breeding and wintering sites, and to compare migration timing during spring and autumn migration. Adults were captured in the southern Pampas and equipped with solar satellite transmitters in 2015 and 2016. We analysed the influence of season (spring vs autumn migration) on the number and duration of stop-overs, distance travelled and overall migration speed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Our results showed that tracked geese used the eastern Patagonian route to reach their breeding grounds and take the same route after breeding. Spring migration was significantly faster than autumn migration, at least based on the number of days spent in their stop-overs. Stop-overs were closer to the final destination, either during spring and autumn migrations, though some of them were not used during subsequent migrations. Our migration cartography for Ruddy-headed Geese, together with the timing and location data, should be used to improve conservation efforts directed at this species and might contribute to the modification of the current status of ‘Least Concern’ under the IUCN criteria.
Cette étude propose d’explorer et d’identifier des moments particuliers où le changement linguistique se produit, afin de confirmer ou de rejeter l’idée d’une période spécifique désignée par le terme « français préclassique », avec une rupture – ou frontière chronolectale – détectable autour de 1630 (cf. Ayres-Bennett et Caron, 2016). Afin de vérifier dans quelle mesure cette chronologie peut être confirmée, il est nécessaire de multiplier des analyses fines et pointues sur des traits linguistiques qui ont subi des changements à l’époque en question et d’interroger une gamme de textes qui reflètent la variation discursive et pragmatique, au lieu de consulter le canon des traditions textuelles actuellement disponibles sur des bases numérisées, qui sont essentiellement littéraires. C’est pourquoi nous avons consulté des sources de nature différente, qui pourraient attester des usages émergents, à savoir les corpus du Réseau Corpus Français Préclassique et Classique (RCFC). Seront présentés les résultats de deux études de cas (la recatégorisation des formes dedans/dessous/dessus/dehors et la montée des clitiques), abondamment discutés par les remarqueurs.
be the product of an abelian variety and a torus defined over a number field
. Fix some prime number
is a point of infinite order, we consider the set of primes
such that the reduction
is well-defined and has order coprime to
. This set admits a natural density. By refining the method of Jones and Rouse [Galois theory of iterated endomorphisms, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (3)100(3) (2010), 763–794. Appendix A by Jeffrey D. Achter], we can express the density as an
-adic integral without requiring any assumption. We also prove that the density is always a rational number whose denominator (up to powers of
) is uniformly bounded in a very strong sense. For elliptic curves, we describe a strategy for computing the density which covers every possible case.
While much of the literature on bilingualism and cognition focuses on group comparisons (monolinguals vs bilinguals or language learners vs controls), here we examine the potential differential effects of intensive language learning on subjects with distinct language experiences and demographic profiles. Using an individual differences approach, we assessed attentional performance from 105 university-educated Gaelic learners aged 21–85. Participants were tested before and after beginner, elementary, and intermediate courses using tasks measuring i.) sustained attention, ii.) inhibition, and iii.) attention switching. We examined the relationship between attentional performance and Gaelic level, previous language experience, gender, and age. Gaelic level predicted attention switching performance: those in higher levels initially outperformed lower levels, however lower levels improved the most. Age also predicted performance: as age increased attention switching decreased. Nevertheless, age did not interact with session for any attentional measure, thus the impact of language learning on cognition was detectable across the lifespan.
Risk prediction algorithms have long been used in health research and practice (e.g. prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes). However, similar tools have not been developed for mental health. For example, for psychotic disorders, attempts to sum environmental risk are rare, unsystematic and dictated by available data. In light of this, we sought to develop a valid, easy to use measure of the aggregate environmental risk score (ERS) for psychotic disorders.
We reviewed the literature to identify well-replicated and validated environmental risk factors for psychosis that combine a significant effect and large-enough prevalence. Pooled estimates of relative risks were taken from the largest available meta-analyses. We devised a method of scoring the level of exposure to each risk factor to estimate ERS. Relative risks were rounded as, due to the heterogeneity of the original studies, risk effects are imprecisely measured.
Six risk factors (ethnic minority status, urbanicity, high paternal age, obstetric complications, cannabis use and childhood adversity) were used to generate the ERS. A distribution for different levels of risk based on simulated data showed that most of the population would be at low/moderate risk with a small minority at increased environmental risk for psychosis.
This is the first systematic approach to develop an aggregate measure of environmental risk for psychoses in asymptomatic individuals. This can be used as a continuous measure of liability to disease; mostly relevant to areas where the original studies took place. Its predictive ability will improve with the collection of additional, population-specific data.
This paper presents the second release of arrau, a multigenre corpus of anaphoric information created over 10 years to provide data for the next generation of coreference/anaphora resolution systems combining different types of linguistic and world knowledge with advanced discourse modeling supporting rich linguistic annotations. The distinguishing features of arrau include the following: treating all NPs as markables, including non-referring NPs, and annotating their (non-) referentiality status; distinguishing between several categories of non-referentiality and annotating non-anaphoric mentions; thorough annotation of markable boundaries (minimal/maximal spans, discontinuous markables); annotating a variety of mention attributes, ranging from morphosyntactic parameters to semantic category; annotating the genericity status of mentions; annotating a wide range of anaphoric relations, including bridging relations and discourse deixis; and, finally, annotating anaphoric ambiguity. The current version of the dataset contains 350K tokens and is publicly available from LDC. In this paper, we discuss in detail all the distinguishing features of the corpus, so far only partially presented in a number of conference and workshop papers, and we also discuss the development between the first release of arrau in 2008 and this second one.
Coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A gap in the literature still exists concerning the intestinal mechanisms that are involved in the protective effect of coffee consumption towards NAFLD. In this study, twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups each receiving a standard diet, a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD plus decaffeinated coffee (HFD+COFFEE) for 12 weeks. Coffee supplementation reduced HFD-induced liver macrovesicular steatosis (P < 0·01) and serum cholesterol (P < 0·001), alanine aminotransferase and glucose (P < 0·05). Accordingly, liver PPAR- α (P < 0·05) and acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (P < 0·05) as well as duodenal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily A1 (ABCA1) and subfamily G1 (ABCG1) (P < 0·05) mRNA expressions increased with coffee consumption. Compared with HFD animals, HFD+COFFEE mice had more undigested lipids in the caecal content and higher free fatty acid receptor-1 mRNA expression in the duodenum and colon. Furthermore, they showed an up-regulation of duodenal and colonic zonulin-1 (P < 0·05), duodenal claudin (P < 0·05) and duodenal peptide YY (P < 0·05) mRNA as well as a higher abundance of Alcaligenaceae in the faeces (P < 0·05). HFD+COFFEE mice had an energy intake comparable with HFD-fed mice but starting from the eighth intervention week they gained significantly less weight over time. Data altogether showed that coffee supplementation prevented HFD-induced NAFLD in mice by reducing hepatic fat deposition and metabolic derangement through modification of pathways underpinning liver fat oxidation, intestinal cholesterol efflux, energy metabolism and gut permeability. The hepatic and metabolic benefits induced by coffee were accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of combined AF and NP repairs to prevent degenerative changes and restore native disc morphology in an in vivo large animal model. We hypothesize that combined repairs will prevent disc degeneration following injury to a greater extent than the individual repairs after 6 weeks in vivo, as demonstrated through disc height measurements and disc morphology. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A total of 8 skeletally mature female Finn sheep were used in this study. Following a previously described method, IVDs from L1 to L6 of the lumbar spine were exposed using a lateral access, extraperitoneal approach5. IVDs were randomized into 5 treatment groups: 1) intact discs, 2) discs injured via a 3 cm x 1 cm box annulotomy and partial nucleotomy, 3) injury followed by a high density collagen (HDC) AF patch, 4) injury followed by injection of a modified hyaluronic acid (HA) into the NP, and 5) injury followed by both the HDC AF patch and HA NP injection. The HDC treatment was 15 mg/mL type-I collagen mixed with 0.06mM riboflavin, injected at the defect site and crosslinked in situ with blue light. The NP injection was HA modified with C16 side chains to increase the viscosity of the hydrogel (HYADD 4®)6. At 6 weeks post-operatively, sheep were sacrificed and had 3T magnetic resonance images (MRI) taken of their lumbar spine. Disc height analysis and Pfirrmann grading were performed on each segment using MR images. Additionally, quantitative MRI analyses were performed using a custom MATLAB algorithm that segments NP from the surrounding tissue and directly measures the NP volume. ANOVA with Tukey’s HSD was used to determine statistical significance between groups for disc height and quantitative MRI analyses, and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Mann-Whitney tests was used to statistically analyze Pfirrmann Grades. All animal use followed approved IACUC protocol. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: As shown in axial MR images (Figure 1A), intact discs had hyperintense NP with a distinct border to the AF. The discs receiving injury with no treatment had hypointense NP with no distinct border between the AF and NP. Individual and combined treatment with the HA NP injection and HDC AF patch appeared to preserve the hyperintense NP signal and AF/NP border. Intact control discs were not degenerated and had an average Pfirrmann grade of 1 (Figure 1B), while injured, untreated discs had significant degeneration with an average Pfirrmann grade of 3. Discs receiving the HA NP injection and collagen AF patch individually showed fewer signs of degeneration than the injured alone, and the combined treatment resulted in the least amount of degeneration with Pfirrmann grades not significantly different than the intact controls. Disc height index confirmed the trends seen in the Pfirrmann grades (Figure 1C), where injured discs lost 20% of the intact disc height, the individual NP and AF repairs restored 5-10% of intact disc height, and the combined repairs preserved 90% of the intact disc height. The NP voxel count of all treatment groups were similar to the intact controls (Figure 1D). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The objective of this study was to determine how combined AF and NP can prevent degenerative changes to the disc in a large animal in vivo model. Pfirrmann grading and disc height index results show that the greatest preservation of disc morphology was seen with combined AF and NP repairs, while the individual strategies prevented degenerative changes better than injury with no treatment. It appears the HA NP injection restores lost water content to the disc following injury, and the AF collagen patch plays a role in maintaining the NP repair within the disc. This is the first study to our knowledge to attempt combined AF and NP repairs in an in vivo large animal model. Combining NP and AF repairs leads to significantly improved outcomes following disc injury, which warrants the translation of combined repairs into the clinic to improve patient outcomes with degenerative disc disease involving NP and AF.
We report a study that investigated executive functions in four groups of participants that varied in bilingual language experience, using a task that measured two theoretically motivated mechanisms of cognitive control (proactive and reactive control). Analyses of accuracy based on aggregated measures suggested an advantage in early highly proficient bilinguals over late passive bilinguals. However, when we factored in individual variability using mixed-model regression with a full random effect structure, we only found a marginal effect of language experience. Our results emphasise the importance of including individual variability when studying bilingualism, and highlight a fundamental consideration in research on the relation between language and attention – namely, the need for a theory-driven approach to measuring cognitive control through laboratory tasks.
We evaluated the effect of in vitro digested milk on mature adipocytes 3T3-L1, paying particular attention to its fatty acid composition, and comparing human (HM), donkey (DM), bovine (BM), ovine (OM), caprine (CM) and formula (FM) milk. Cellular viability, apoptosis, oxidative response and gene expression levels of NF-κB p65, HMGB1, SREBP-1c and FAS were evaluated. Digested milk treatments significantly reduced 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes viability and caspase activity compared with control group, but no significant differences were observed among different sources of digested milk. In all digested milk samples, ROS level was higher than the control, however, the digested human and formula milk showed lower levels of ROS than DM, BM, OM and CM samples. Lower capacity of HM and FM to induce oxidative stress in mature adipocytes was ascribed to the peculiar free fatty acids profile of digested milk samples. All milk treatments elicited a significant over-expression of NF-κB p65 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to the control; the lowest gene expression was found in HM, BM, OM and CM, the highest in FM and an intermediate behavior was shown in DM. All digested milk treatments influenced the gene expression of SRBP-1c with FM and HM showing the highest levels. For FAS expression, BM showed the highest level, OM and CM intermediate and FM, HM and DM the lowest levels, however HM and DM had comparable levels to the control.
In 1767 Forbonnais published the Principes et observations oeconomiques with the declared intent of challenging the scientific validity of the Tableau économique, despite the fact that in 1759 ‘he had been one of its keenest readers, just as Quesnay had been of his Recherches et considérations sur les finances de France depuis l'année 1595 jusqu’à l'année 1721’. Indeed, the relationship between Quesnay, the court physician who had given himself to the study of the economy, and Forbonnais, the inspecteur général des monnaies de France (from 1756) and economic advisor to the contrôleur général Étienne de Silhouette, was strong, as the letters that the former sent to the latter during 1758 attest. In one dated 14 September, Quesnay had expressed his appreciation for Forbonnais's ideas ‘on circulation’, saying these were ‘the only way to conceive of it in reality and truth’. Quesnay praised him for having avoided the trap of tracing the origins of the wealth of a nation by taking into account only the circulation of money. However, in the same letter he invited Forbonnais to follow a new path to analyse that circulation: in carrying out his research and ‘assessment’ Forbonnais needed to bear in mind
that the richesses usuelles are no more than a flow of foodstuffs always destroyed by consumption and replenished by reproduction; that what is income or profit for some subjects and expenditure or loss for others is not an income for the state, but only a redistribution of income; and that there is no revenue for the state except from agricultural products that can be traded, and from the net profit of commerce with foreigners.
Quesnay also stated that it was necessary to distinguish between
the net profit of foreign trade as a sales instrument whose effect is to support the market value of goods and manufactured products, the manufactured products being considered nothing more than a way to allow agricultural products to flow.
In essence, despite continuing to maintain that foreign trade could lead to a net profit, in this letter to Forbonnais, Quesnay had anticipated the key arguments of his Tableau in which, significantly, the possibility that foreign trade could produce a net profit disappeared.
The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) field holds huge potential for understanding behavioral development and informing effective early interventions for psychological health. To realize this potential, factors that shape the MGB axis in infancy (i.e., breast milk) must be integrated into a systemic framework that considers salient behavioral outcomes. This is best accomplished applying network analyses in large prospective, longitudinal investigations in humans.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Recent scientific evidence on Culex quinquefasciatus has suggested its potential as a vector for ZIKV, which may change the current risk zones. We aimed to quantify the world population potentially exposed to ZIKV in a spatially explicit way, considering the primary vector (A. aegypti) and the potential vector (C. quinquefasciatus). Our model combined species distribution modelling of mosquito species with spatially explicit human population data to estimate ZIKV exposure risk. We estimated the potential global distribution of C. quinquefasciatus and estimated its potential interaction zones with A. aegypti. Then we evaluated the risk zones for ZIKV considering both vectors. Finally, we quantified and compared the people under risk associated with each vector by risk level, country and continent. We found that C. quinquefasciatus had a more temperate distribution until 42° in both hemispheres, while the risk involving A. aegypti is concentrated mainly in tropical latitudes until 35° in both hemispheres. Globally, 4.2 billion people are under risk associated with ZIKV. Around 2.6 billon people are under very high risk associated with C. quinquefasciatus and 1 billion people associated with A. aegypti. Several countries could be exposed to ZIKV, which emphasises the need to clarify the competence of C. quinquefasciatus as a potential vector as soon as possible. The models presented here represent a tool for risk management, public health planning, mosquito control and preventive actions, especially to focus efforts on the most affected areas.
Jumping to conclusions (JTC), which is the proneness to require less information before forming beliefs or making a decision, has been related to formation and maintenance of delusions. Using data from the National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) case–control study of first-episode psychosis (FEP), we set out to test whether the presence of JTC would predict poor clinical outcome at 4 years.
One-hundred and twenty-three FEP patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the probabilistic reasoning ‘Beads’ Task at the time of recruitment. The sample was split into two groups based on the presence of JTC bias. Follow-up data over an average of 4 years were obtained concerning clinical course and outcomes (remission, intervention of police, use of involuntary treatment – the Mental Health Act (MHA) – and inpatient days).
FEP who presented JTC at baseline were more likely during the follow-up period to be detained under the MHA [adjusted OR 15.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.92–83.54, p = 0.001], require intervention by the police (adjusted OR 14.95, 95% CI 2.68–83.34, p = 0.002) and have longer admissions (adjusted IRR = 5.03, 95% CI 1.91–13.24, p = 0.001). These associations were not accounted for by socio-demographic variables, IQ and symptom dimensions.
JTC in FEP is associated with poorer outcome as indicated and defined by more compulsion police intervention and longer periods of admission. Our findings raise the question of whether the implementation of specific interventions to reduce JTC, such as Metacognition Training, may be a useful addition in early psychosis intervention programmes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study is to further evaluate underlying disease parameters in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, that is reduction in antioxidant potential, and determining if supplementation of the antioxidant enzyme catalase could be employed as a potential therapeutic. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Nasopharyngeal secretions were obtained from patients (<2 years old) verified for RSV infection, and assessed for catalase activity and correlated with disease parameters. In addition, the BALB/c animal model of RSV infection was utilized to directly study the effect of supplemental catalase on RSV-related disease parameters in vivo. The catalase formulation used in these studies is pegylated, and has been tested to provide long-term increased catalase activity in vivo. We are also currently working on designing an in vitro model of catalase supplementation in A549 bronchial epithelial cells. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data shows that patients with more severe disease (based on hospitalization, oxygen supplementation) have significantly lower levels of catalase activity (p<0.02). Additionally, when pegylated-Catalase (PG-CAT) treatment is utilized in RSV infection of mice, there is significant improvement in several disease parameters. PG-CAT-treated mice show an attenuated body weight loss (p<0.001) and clinical disease (p<0.02), and also have lower levels of key pro-inflammatory cytokines including CXCL1 and TNF-α. PG-CAT treatment also resulted in a minor decrease in viral titer, which is being further evaluated. In addition, PG-CAT treatment resulted in an improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness observed at baseline, we are further characterizing this improvement and also conducting methacholine challenges. Currently, we are working to determine the underlying mechanism through which PG-CAT results in these improvements, and whether it is through changes in immune cell populations, cellular signaling or apoptosis signaling pathways (i.e., caspases). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: RSV is the leading cause of viral pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, with no vaccines or effective therapeutics available currently. Our study indicates that catalase activity could be used as a potential correlate for disease severity and be used as an indicator of disease during patient treatment. Additionally, and more importantly supplementation of catalase could be used as a potential therapeutic for treatment of RSV.