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Xenarthra is an endemic South American lineage of mammals, probably the sister clade of the other placental mammals. The oldest records of Xenarthra are from the latest Paleocene, although its current diversity is much lower than that recorded in some intervals of the Cenozoic Era. A new Neogene Xenarthra (Pilosa and Cingulata) assemblage from two localities of the Argentine Eastern Puna (Calahoyo and Casira) is described. The newly recorded taxa—Cingulata, Dasypodidae, Eutatini: Stenotatus sp. indet. and Eutatini indet., Euphractini: Macrochorobates scalabrinii (Moreno and Mercerat, 1891), and Tardigrada, Mylodontinae: cf. Simomylodon sp. indet. and Simomylodon cf. S. uccasamamensis Saint-André et al., 2010—and those already published from Calahoyo—Cingulata: Macrochorobates chapadmalensis (Ameghino, 1908), Eosclerocalyptus sp. indet., and Tardigrada, Megatheriidae: Pyramiodontherium bergi (Moreno and Mercerat, 1891)—suggest a middle–late Miocene age for the fossil-bearing levels. In Calahoyo, the presence of Stenotatus sp. indet., in addition to some rodents currently under study in the lower levels, suggest a closer similarity with the palaeofauna of Cerdas (southern Bolivia), probably involving the last part of the Miocene Climatic Optimum. The Xenarthra recorded in the middle and upper levels of Calahoyo and Casira suggest a late Miocene–Pliocene age. A comparative analysis between Calahoyo and Casira highlights the absence of Cingulata in the latter and a high diversity in the former. This situation probably indicates different paleoenvironmental conditions. Finally, we present the first certain record of the genus Simomylodon Saint-André et al., 2010 in Argentina, which includes the oldest record of dermal ossicles for sloths in South America.
The objective of this research is to support DfX considerations in the early phases of design. In order to do conduct DfX, designers need access to pertinent downstream knowledge that is keyed to early stage design activities and problem knowledge. Product functionality is one such “key” connection between early understanding of the design problem and component choices which dictate product performance and impact, and repositories of design knowledge are one way to archive such design knowledge. However, curation of design knowledge is often a time-consuming activity requiring expertise in product modeling. In this paper, we explore a method to automate the populating of design repositories to support the overall goal of having up-to-date repositories of product design knowledge. To do this, we mine information from an existing repository to better understand the relationships between the components, functions, and flows of products. The resulting knowledge can be applied to automate functional decompositions once a product's components have been entered and thus reliably provide that “key” between early design activities and the later, component dependent characteristics.
In the present work, we carried out a morphological, biometrical and molecular study of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché, 1835) and their subspecies: Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835) and Archaeopsylla erinacei maura (Jordan & Rothschild, 1912) isolated from hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from different geographical regions (Seville and Corse). We have found morphological differences in females of A. erinacei from the same geographical origin that did not correspond with molecular differences. We suggest that some morphological characters traditionally used to discriminate females of both subspecies should be revised as well as we set the total length of the spermatheca as a valid criterion in order to discriminate between both subspecies. The Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1, ITS2) and partial 18S rRNA gene, and partial cytochrome c-oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) mtDNA gene sequences were determined to clarify the taxonomic status of these taxa and to assess intra-specific and intra-population similarity. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis with other species of fleas using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analysis was performed. All molecular markers used, except 18S, showed molecular differences between populations corresponding with geographical origins. Thus, based on the phylogenetic and molecular study of two nuclear markers (ITS1, ITS2) and two mitochondrial markers (cox1 and cytb), as well as concatenated sequences of both subspecies, we reported the existence of two geographical genetic lineages in A. erinacei corresponding with two different subspecies: A. e. erinacei (Corse, France) and A. e. maura (Seville, Spain), that could be discriminated by polymerase chain reaction-linked random-fragment-length polymorphism.
Colistin resistance mediated by the mcr-1 gene has been reported worldwide, but to date not from the Andean region, South America. We report the first clinical isolate of Escherichia coli harbouring the mcr-1 gene in Ecuador. The strain was isolated from peritoneal fluid from a 14-year-old male with acute appendicitis, and subjected to molecular analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of colistin for the strain was 8 mg/ml and it was susceptible to carbapenems but resistant to tigecycline. The strain harboured mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-55 genes and was of sequence type 609. The recognition of an apparently commensal strain of E. coli harbouring mcr-1 serves as an alert to the presence in the region of this recently described resistance mechanism to one of the last line of drugs available for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative infections.
There are two principal problems in explaining, in terms of the emission from OB stars, the ionisation of gas which emits diffuse Hα in spiral galaxies. One is the long pathlength which the ionising photons need to traverse to reach their objectives, the other is whether sufficient photons can escape from within the H II regions which surround the hot stars. Here we treat the second point, assuming that the H II regions above a certain threshold luminosity are density bounded. We calculate the escaping Lyman continuum (Lyc) fluxes from the density bounded regions in four galaxies, and show that in each of them this is easily suffcient to produce the measured diffuse Hα emission.
We propose a qualitative explanation for the light radial profile of a spiral galaxy based on the quantitative magnetic model of truncations (Battaner et al. 2002) in which when stars are born (hence the magnetic force acting on the progenitor gas cloud is no longer at work) migrate to larger orbits or escape.
Cortical hyperostosis is a very uncommon side-effect of prolonged prostaglandin therapy with distinctive radiological signs that may be accompanied by painful swelling of the limbs and responds rapidly to withdrawal of therapy.
In the present work, we carried out a comparative molecular study of Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands, Spain. The Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1, ITS2) and 18S ribosomal RNA partial gene and cytochrome c-oxidase 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA partial gene sequences of this subspecies were determined to clarify the taxonomic status of this subspecies and to assess inter-population variation and inter-specific sequence differences. In addition, we have carried out a comparative phylogenetic study with other species of fleas using Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining analysis. A geographical signal was detected between the cox1 partial gene sequences of S. t. tripectinata isolated from M. musculus from different islands and those isolated from Apodemus sylvaticus from the Iberian Peninsula. Our results assess the monophyletic origin of Stenoponiinae and a different genetic lineage from Ctenophthalmidae. Thus, the elevation of subfamily Stenoponiinae to family level (Stenoponiidae) is suggested.
A study of the fluid flow in a mixing device proposed to dissolve alloying elements in iron baths is performed through a mathematical model in order to predict the best operating conditions for a proper melting/dissolution of solid alloying particles. The mathematical model consists in the mass and momentum conservation equations (continuity and Turbulent Navier-Stokes equations), and the standard two k-epsilon turbulence model. The model is numerically solved in transient regime with the Volume of Fluid algorithm (VOF) to calculate the vortex shape. VOF is built-in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software ANSYS FLUENT 14. A flow of metal enters tangentially in the mixing chamber of the proposed mixing device (taken from an open patent) to generate a vortex. The shape and height of the vortex reached in this chamber depends on several design variables, but in this work only the presence or absence of a barrier in the device is analyzed. Results are obtained on the vortex sizes and shapes, liquid flow patterns, turbulent structure, residence times of the particles of alloying elements added to the melt and mixing times (Residence time distribution curves) of two devices: one with a barrier and the other without this barrier. It is found that the presence of the barrier in the device increases turbulence, destroys the vortex, decreases the residence time of the particles, and decreases the volume of fluid in the device. Most of the features of the barrier are detrimental for mixing and inhibits melting/dissolution of the alloying elements. Then, it is suggested a device without the presence of barrier for better performance.
Observations and simulations indicate that bars are important agents to transfer material towards galaxy centers. However, observational studies devoted to investigate the effects of bars in galaxy centers are not yet conclusive. We have used a sample (Coelho & Gadotti 2011) of nearby face–on galaxies with available spectra (SDSS database) to investigate the footprints of bars in galaxy centers by analysing the central ionized gas properties of barred and unbarred galaxies separately. We find statistically significant differences in the Hβ Balmer extinction, star formation rate per unit area, in the [S ii]λ6717/[S ii]λ6731 line ratio, and notably in the N2 parameter (N2 = log([N ii]λ6583/Hα)). A deeper analysis reflects that these differences are only relevant for the less massive bulges (≲1010M⊙). These results have important consequences for studies on bulge formation and galaxy evolution.
Galactic winds and outflows are an ubiquitous phenomenon in galaxies with active star formation and/or active nuclei. They constitute the main mechanism for redistributing dust and metals on large scales and are therefore a key ingredient to understand the life cycle of galaxies. Among galaxies, ULIRGs are of particular interest in this context, as they host intense starbursts and are likely to be the dominant star formers at z > 1. These objects have been shown to host important winds, but it is not yet known what is the frequency of galactic winds and their properties in galaxies with lower star formation rates (SFR). We are studying galactic winds in a sample of 21 galaxies with different SFRs (including ULIRGs) from observations with the INTEGRAL fiber spectrograph on the 4.2m WHT. In order to be able to address the complex multi–phase nature of the wind phenomenon, we have used the Na I D doublet absorption lines to trace cold gas, and a few emission lines (Hα, [N ii] and [S ii]) to trace the warmer ionized gas of the wind. The distribution and kinematics of both components in these objects is then analysed. Preliminary results show strong spatial correlation between regions with high non–circular velocities, areas with high star formation activity and regions with two different components in the emission lines. This set of data will help us to characterise the distribution and kinematics of the winds and their relation with the host galaxy type.
Latin America has a high rate of community-associated infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae relative to other world regions. A review of the literature over the last 10 years indicates that urinary tract infections (UTIs) by Escherichia coli, and intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) by E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were characterized by high rates of resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and second-generation cephalosporins, and by low levels of resistance to aminoglycosides, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin. In addition, preliminary data indicate an increase in IAIs by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases, with reduced susceptibilities to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Primary-care physicians in Latin America should recognize the public health threat associated with UTIs and IAIs by resistant Gram-negative bacteria. As the number of therapeutic options become limited, we recommend that antimicrobial prescribing be guided by infection severity, established patient risk factors for multidrug-resistant infections, acquaintance with local antimicrobial susceptibility data, and culture collection.
We have carried out a detailed analysis of stellar properties of bars and bulges of a sample of early-type galaxies. We have also compared the results of the bulge properties with the bulges of a similar sample of unbarred galaxies, deriving the SSP equivalent stellar parameters in the same way as for our sample. We are currently characterising the nebular gas in the bulges of the sample galaxies. We have found differences in the bulge stellar population properties between barred and unbarred galaxies. The bulges of barred galaxies seem to be more metal rich, at a given velocity dispersion (σ), than the bulges of unbarred galaxies, as measured by some metallicity sensitive indices. There are indications that the ratio of relative abundance of alpha-elements with respect to iron, [E/Fe], derived for the bulges of barred galaxies tend to lie above the values of the unbarred galaxies at a given σ. We also find three different types of bars according to their metallicity and age distribution along the radius: 1) Bars with negative metallicity gradients. They show mean young/intermediate population (<2 Gyr), and have amongst the lowest stellar maximum central velocity dispersion of the sample. 2) Bars with null metallicity gradients. These galaxies that do not show any gradient in their metallicity distribution along the bar and have negative age gradients (i.e younger populations at the bar end). 3) Bars with positive metallicity gradients, i.e. more metal rich at the bar ends. These galaxies are predominantly those with higher velocity dispersion and older mean population. We find no significant correlation between the age and metallicity distribution, and bar/galaxy parameters such as the AGN presence, size or the bar strength. From the kinematics, we find that all the galaxies show a disk–like central component. Regarding the ionised gas properties, we find that the nebular metallicity gradients are shallower than the stellar ones, indicating an efficient mixing of the material currently forming. The nebular central metallicities do not show a correlation with the central σ, and, furthermore, in some cases the nebular metallicities are clearly lower than the stellar ones, indicating an external origin for the gas fueling the current star formation. All these results point to a scenario, at least for early-type galaxies, where bars are long-lived and where the formation of the bulge and the bar are closely linked. Later accretion of gas can then be funneled towards the center forming nuclear discs and rings, producing substructures with low level of star formation, but that would not contain enough stars to produce a change in the SSP-equivalent metallicities and [E/Fe].
The X-ray transient source XTE J1818–245 went through an outburst in 2005 that was observed during a multi-wavelength campaign from radio to soft γ-rays. We performed new optical observations with the ESO/NTT telescope at La Silla. The broad-band spectral energy distribution revealed that the outer parts of the accretion disc had to be irradiated by its inner parts to explain the optical emission.
An outbreak of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections was reported in a hospital in Ecuador. Commercially produced ampoules of water for injection were found to be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia and Myroides odoratus. Removal of these ampoules yielded a 10-fold reduction in the incidence of catheter-associated infection.
The Araucaria Tit-spinetail Leptasthenura setaria (Furnariidae) is a globally Near Threatened species. Its habitat, the araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia) rainforest of south-east Brazil and north-east Argentina, is highly fragmented and reduced to nearly 10% of its original range. The species has also been recorded in commercial araucaria plantations that comprise about 80% of its suitable habitat in Argentina. This situation provides an opportunity for the conservation of the Araucaria Tit-spinetail in a human-modified landscape. We assessed the occurrence of the species in the region and estimated its density and total population size in araucaria plantations in Argentina. We discuss the value of plantations in the conservation of the bird, and evaluate its conservation status in Argentina using IUCN criteria. The density of the tit-spinetail in araucaria plantations, estimated by a distance sampling method, was 9 birds ha−1. The overall population size in commercial plantations appears to be large (>7,000 birds), showing that araucaria plantations play an important role in the conservation of the bird. However, plantations must not replace the native araucaria forest because the former are an intrinsically fragmented habitat influenced primarily by economic factors and forestry practices. The long-term conservation and restoration of araucaria rainforest in Argentina and Brazil must be guaranteed to conserve the Araucaria Tit-spinetail and other species associated with this rainforest. Based on the restricted and very fragmented habitat, the Araucaria Tit-spinetail should be regarded as Vulnerable in Argentina.
Binary encounters between spherical particles in shear flow are studied for a system bounded by a single planar wall or two parallel planar walls under creeping flow conditions. We show that wall proximity gives rise to a new class of binary trajectories resulting in cross-streamline migration of the particles. The spheres on these new trajectories do not pass each other (as they would in free space) but instead they swap their cross-streamline positions. To determine the significance of the wall-induced particle migration, we have evaluated the hydrodynamic self-diffusion coefficient associated with a sequence of uncorrelated particle displacements due to binary particle encounters. The results of our calculations quantitatively agree with the experimental value obtained by Zarraga & Leighton (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14, 2002, p. 2194) for the self-diffusivity in a dilute suspension of spheres undergoing shear flow in a Couette device. We thus show that the wall-induced cross-streamline particle migration is the source of the anomalously large self-diffusivity revealed by their experiments.
ENDOTHELIAL CELL AS INPUT-OUTPUT DEVICE
Amado J. Zurita, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, Houston,
Wadih Arap, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, Houston,
Renata Pasqualini, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, Houston
The vascular system is a complex network of vessels connecting the heart with organs and tissues to maintain homeostasis in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells (ECs), mural cells (pericytes or smooth muscle cells), and basement membrane. ECs lining the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels play important roles in the control of vascular tone, hemostasis, tissue growth, capillary exchange, inflammation, immune response, and angiogenesis. Even though these functions, along with other anatomical and molecular features, are common to all ECs, substantial structural and functional heterogeneity is seen among them. For example, ECs in the brain form a tight continuous monolayer required for a critical barrier function (blood–brain barrier), but those in the kidney, spleen, liver, and bone marrow display fenestrations or intercellular gaps for the rapid exchange of fluids and/or cells. This diversity is clearly a result of molecular differences between EC populations, which allow complex interactions with very distinctive microenvironments. Recent studies have identified transcriptional diversity between ECs in different types of blood vessels (arteries vs. veins, vessels of different caliber) and different anatomical locations (1–4).Not surprisingly, lymphatic ECs also display distinct characteristics (5).
Blood vessels can grow from endothelial progenitors (vasculogenesis), from the sprouting and subsequent stabilization of these sprouts by mural cells (angiogenesis and arteriogenesis), or from the expansive growth of preexisting vessels (collateral growth) (6). When vessel growth is altered, in particular when excessive angiogenesis occurs, new blood vessels contribute to a long (and growing) list of disorders, including cancer, arthritis, retinopathies, obesity, atherosclerosis, and asthma (6). However, it is in solid tumors where an abnormal vasculature is a hallmark (7, 8).
We have started a long term project to analyse the role played by bars in bulge formation and the formation and evolution of bars from the point of view of their star formation histories and stellar populations. To this aim, we have obtained high S/N long slit spectra of 22 barred galaxies, ranging in morphological types between S0 to Sb galaxies. We have obtained Lick/IDS indices along the bar for all the sample galaxies. We used Vazdekis et al. (2007) models to derive simple stellar population ages and metallicities. Extreme care has been taken to correct the indices for any nebular contribution. Preliminary results show that the bulges of barred galaxies are similar to those of unbarred galaxies. The metalicity gradients along bars show a dependency with the central stellar velocity dispersion. The galaxies with higher central dispersion appear to have a gradient in both age and metallicity changing radially outward to a younger and more metal rich population. The galaxies with lower central velocity dispersion show a change in age and metallicity with respect to the inner part of the bar with the populations at the end of the bar being younger or same age and more metal poor. There is no correlation between the gradient and the morphological or nuclear type. There is no correlation either with the total K-band luminosity. The fact that we observe galaxies with the outer parts of the bar more metal rich than the inner parts shows that at least some bars are old, since it requires long time for the observed enrichment to take place. The gradients in these bars are opposite to what is generally found in disks. The correlation between the central velocity dispersion and the bar gradient relates both, the dynamical and stellar population aging of the bar.