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In the dawn of increasing interest in climate changes, including extreme weather events, e.g. the Foehn winds, and their influence on public health, it is of great importance to understand their role in suicide.
The association between suicides in the Tatra Mountains, Poland from 1999 to 2014 and the Foehn wind (called Halny in this region) was examined. The belief that suicides are affected by Halny seems to be firmly rooted in local language and culture.
The purpose of the study was to assess the Halny wind as a suicide risk factor.
Data concerning all suicides in the region were included. Meteorological data were derived every three hours during the period of the study. Halny was defined as a complex of interacting meteorological conditions. The two days preceding and following the wind were recognized as the period of the Foehn influence (FI). The probability of suicide in the presence of Halny and during the FI period was calculated.
From 1st January 1999 to 31 December 2014 (5844 days), 210 consecutive suicides were registered. The number of suicides in men was markedly higher than in women. Halny did not change the overall probability of suicide. However, the presence of Halny modified the suicide risk according to the season (P = 0.00095, two-way ANOVA test). The FI periods appeared to increase suicide risk in summer and autumn.
Halny may contribute to the increased suicide risk in summer and autumn. It should be taken into account in suicide preventive interventions in this region.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This article addresses the role that the legacy of the pre- and post-WWII past has played in ongoing identity debates among the inhabitants of Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian Federation. Since 1991, interest in preserving this legacy has been on the rise, influencing the inhabitants’ feeling of regional distinctiveness in numerous ways. While the pre-war legacy is important for a considerable number of Kaliningraders, others believe that it threatens the Russian and Soviet mien of the Oblast, both in cultural and political terms. They favor taking greater care of Soviet-era buildings, monuments, and other commemorations of war heroes. This viewpoint disparity has recently widened due to both internal and external factors, including the deterioration of Russo-western relations. A March 2015 incident in the village of Veselovka is used to reflect upon the way in which pre-war and post-war legacies are used in the above-mentioned identity debate. The author examines the direction of identity construction in the oblast through the officially-acknowledged vision of Russianness as pursued by President Vladimir Putin, in particular, and the Russian government, in general.
Hemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90).
A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort.
In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system.
MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS – A Descriptive Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):230–236.
We introduce and study the framework of compact metric structures and their associated notions of isomorphisms such as homeomorphic and bi-Lipschitz isomorphism. This is subsequently applied to model various classification problems in analysis such as isomorphism of C*-algebras and affine homeomorphism of Choquet simplices, where among other things we provide a simple proof of the completeness of the isomorphism relation of separable, simple, nuclear C*-algebras recently established by M. Sabok.
A general model is presented for the small type of fans (not to be confused with sandurs) that develop subaerially in the zone immediately before an ice front. These fans have in common with other fans that a proximal, a middle and a distal subenvironment– with distinctly different sedimentary facies– can be distinguished. The characteristics of these fans differ in several respects, however, from those formed under other conditions, particularly by the high proportion of mass-flow deposits in the proximal part, by the relative scarcity of fine particles in the middle fan, and by the relatively uniform character of the sediments in the distal fan.
The special character of this type of fan is ascribed to the interaction of a continuously changing distance between the ice front and the fan (as a result of alternating phases of ice advance and ice retreat), its position that may be surrounded by ice for a large part, and the irregular supply of debris-laden meltwater that comes sometimes even in the form of more or less catastrophic floods.
Due to the fact that terminoglacial fans have a good preservation potential only during phases of ice retreat, these fas tend to show a slight fining-upward tendency. The slope of terminoglacial fans tends to be more gentle (rarely over 2–5°) than that of fans formed under different conditions.
This study presents a novel approach to impedance measurements. The methodology discussed is limited to contact in the sample-probe system under ambient conditions without the presence of electrolyte. Comparison with results of direct and alternating current measurements for well-defined metallic surfaces are made. In spite of idealization related to the type of contact examined, the proposed technique provides an improvement of traditional impedance measurement related to sequential changes in system perturbation compared with the sine wave superposition type.
Nanoimpedance measurements, using the dynamic impedance spectroscopy technique, were carried out during loading and unloading force of a probe on three kinds of materials of different resistivity. These materials were: gold, boron-doped diamond, and AISI 304 stainless steel. Changes of impedance spectra versus applied force were registered and differences in the tip-to-sample contact character on each material were revealed. To enable comparison between materials and phases, a new standardization method is proposed, which simulates conditions of initial contact.
This paper presents the first fossil penguin from East Antarctica, and the only one known south of the Antarctic Circle. It is represented by two well-preserved elements of the wing skeleton, humerus and radius, obviously assignable to the extant genus Spheniscus. They were found in the glaciomarine succession of the Fisher Bench Formation (Fisher Massif, Prince Charles Mountains, Mac. Robertson Land), which was dated using Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy to be Late Miocene in age (10.2 Ma). They are only slightly younger than the oldest remains undoubtedly attributable to this taxon. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicate diagenetic alteration of the original bone bioapatite under dominantly marine conditions. The Late Miocene was a period of ice margin retreat and marine incursion into the Lambert embayment that followed Middle Miocene cooling of the Antarctic climate. The fossils strongly suggest that variable climatic and environmental conditions in East Antarctica may have been an important factor in the evolution of penguins there during the Neogene.
Objectives: During a public health emergency, public health officials issue directives with actions people need to take to protect themselves. Past research has shown that adherence to these directives depends on individual beliefs and circumstances. This report presents new research about the effects of community factors on adherence.
Methods: A random digit-dial survey of 936 residents in the St Louis, Missouri, area was conducted in 2008 to assess barriers to and facilitators of adherence to directives issued in response to a hypothetical scenario involving the intentional release of the bacterium that causes plague. Community factors were assessed using characteristics of census tracts for individual respondents. Multilevel modeling was used to understand how individual and community factors contributed to the likelihood of adherence.
Results: The majority of participants indicated that they would adhere to 3 distinct directives. Community poverty and ethnic homogeneity as well as individual-level barriers were negatively associated with adherence to a 6-day quarantine. Having children younger than 18 years and being away from home when the directive was called were negatively associated with adherence to a 10-hour quarantine. Logistical concerns were negatively associated with visiting a point of dispensing for prophylactic antibiotics.
Conclusions: Our findings establish an empirical basis for the influence of community factors on adherence to public health directives. The influence of community and individual factors on adherence varies across directives. Consequently, communication strategies to disseminate directives and organizational strategies to support them must vary according to the nature of the directives.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:253–262)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging. As such, it is very sensitive to external noise sources that can affect the quality of collected data. The intensity of the disturbance depends on the noise source and the mode of operation. In some cases, the internal noise from commercial AFM controllers can be significant and difficult to remove. Thus, a new method based on spectrum analysis of the scanned images is proposed to reduce harmonic disturbances. The proposal is a post-processing method and can be applied at any time after measurements. This article includes a few methods of harmonic cancellation (e.g., median filtering, wavelet denoising, Savitzky-Golay smoothing) and compares their effectiveness. The proposed method, based on Fourier transform of the scanned images, was more productive than the other methods mentioned before. The presented data were achieved for images of conductive layers taken in a contact AFM mode.
Recently there have been a number of reports indicating concern relating to the effect of porosity, pore size distribution, and pore interconnectivity on the integration of highly porous ultra low-k organosilicate glasses (OSGs) as back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnect dielectrics. In an effort to address these concerns a number of options to control the skeleton and pore structure of OSGs have been proposed, from adding alternative OSG precursors to alternative porogen precursors. In all these options there is a need to balance pore structure modification with critical film properties such as dielectric constant and mechanical strength. In this context, this paper examines porosity and its impact on film properties for highly porous ultra low dielectric constant films. A series of PDEMS® porous OSG films were deposited by plasma enchanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from DEMS® precursor (diethoxymethylsilane) and porogen ATRP (alpha-terpenine). The percent porosity and pore interconnectivity of these films relative to the dielectric constant were measured by ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) respectively. Porosity and pore-size distribution for films deposited using several different species (structure former or porogen precursors) were examined using EP in an effort to understand the impact of the chemical nature of the precursor on pore morphology. Results from these depositions show that it is possible to deposit films with smaller pores using alternative structure formers (ASFs) with bulky organic groups, although there are tradeoffs with respect to other film characteristics. The addition of a separate porogen (ATRP) to the ASF lowered the dielectric constant and the addition of DEMS® precursor to the ASF/ATRP mix gave the films added structural integrity and mechanical strength. Such a fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships will help support successful integration of these porous OSG films.
We propose to measure the radii of the Penn State - Toruń Planet Search (PTPS) exoplanet host star candidates using the CHARA Array. Stellar radii estimated from spectroscopic analysis are usually inaccurate due to indirect nature of the method and strong evolutionary model dependency. Also, the so-called degeneracy of stellar evolutionary tracks due to convergence of many tracks in the giant branch decreases the precision of such estimates. However, the radius of a star is a critical parameter for the calculation of stellar luminosity and mass, which are often not well known especially for giants. With well determined effective temperature (from spectroscopy) and radius, the luminosity may be calculated precisely. In turn also stellar mass may be estimated much more precisely. Therefore, direct radii measurements increase precision in the determination of planetary candidates masses and the surface temperatures of the planets.
We sought to determine whether inhaled 3% hypertonic saline (HS) reduces admission to hospital in ambulatory children with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis. Secondary objectives compared changes in respiratory scores before and after treatment and assessed the need for unscheduled medical intervention within 7 days.
Children under the age of 2 years presenting with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis to the emergency department of 4 general hospitals from November 2008 to March 2009 were randomly assigned to receive 3 consecutive 4-mL doses of nebulized 3% HS (treatment group) or 0.9% normal saline (NS; control group) in a double blind fashion, each coadministered with 1 mg salbutamol. Outcome measures included the difference in hospital admission rate and changes in respiratory distress scores.
A total of 81 children (mean age 8.9 mo, range 0.7–22 mo) were assessed over 88 visits on an intention-to-treat basis. No statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Children in the HS group had a nonsignificant trend toward greater improvement compared with NS controls with a same-day admission rate of 18% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9%–32%) versus 27% (95% CI 16%–42%), respectively. Respiratory Assessment Change Scores (RACS) favoured the HS group over NS controls (mean RACS 4.7 [95% CI 3.6–5.8] v. 3.7 [95% CI 2.5–4.9], respectively), although the CIs overlap and these differences were not statistically significant.
The short-term use of nebulized 3% HS did not result in any statistically significant benefits, although a nonsignificant trend toward a decrease in admission rate and improvement in respiratory distress was found. A larger study would be required to determine whether these trends arise from a clinically relevant treatment effect.
Searches for planets around giants represent an essential complement to ’traditional’ surveys, because they furnish information about properties of planetary systems around stars that are the descendants of the A-F main sequence (MS) stars with masses as high as ~5 M⊙. As the stars evolve off the MS, their effective temperatures and rotation rates decrease to the point that their radial velocity variations can be measured with a few ms−1 precision. This offers an excellent opportunity to improve our understanding of the population of planets around stars that are significantly more massive than the Sun, without which it would be difficult to produce abroad, integrated picture of planet formation and evolution. Since 2001, about 30 such objects have been identified, including our five published HET detections (Niedzielski et al. 2007; Niedzielski et al. 2009a; Niedzielski et al. 2009b). Our work has produced the tightest orbit of a planet orbiting a K-giant identified so far (0.6 AU), and the first convincing evidence for a multiplanet system around such as star (Niedzielski et al. 2009a). Our most recent discoveries (Niedzielski et al. 2009b) have identified new multiplanet systems, including a very intriguing one of two brown dwarf-mass bodies orbiting a 2.8M⊙, K2 giant. This particular detection challenges the standard interpretation of the so-called brown dwarf desert known to exist in the case of solar-mass stars. Along with discoveries supplied by other groups, our work has substantially added to the emerging evidence that stellar mass positively correlates with masses of substellar companions, all the way from red dwarfs to intermediate-mass stars. We present current status and forthcoming results from the Pennsylvania-Toruń Search for Planets performed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) since 2004.
The Penn State/Toruń Centre for Astronomy Search for Planets Around Evolved Stars is a high-accuracy
radial velocity (RV) survey aiming at planet detection around giant stars. It is based on observations obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. As proper interpretation of high accuracy RV data for red giants requires complete spectral analysis of targets we perform spectral modeling of all stars included in the survey. Typically, rotation velocities and metallicities are determined in addition to stellar luminosities and temperatures, which allows us to estimate stellar ages and masses. Here we present preliminary results of metallicity studies in our sample. We search for a metallicity dependence similar to that for dwarfs by comparing our results for a sample of 22 giants earlier than K5 showing significant RV variations with a control sample of 58 relatively RV-stable stars.
This study discusses topography specifications for 22 nm and beyond CMP process and presents recent experimental data. We evaluated local topography impact on CD development in the subsequent layer using specially designed 22-nm test patterns. A wide range of localized erosions were generated in CMP within a single exposure field to avoid any focus-correction effect by the scanner or any other scanner-induced focus change between different levels of local erosion. Local erosions were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) after each process step from CMP to lithography to identify the local planarization effect from other film coatings between CMP and lithography. Post-litho CD inspection was done in the subsequent layer over the local erosion areas. Using experimental results, the paper also discusses BEOL pattern design rule for maximizing the process window.