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With a machine learning approach and less focus on linguistic details, this gentle introduction to natural language processing develops fundamental mathematical and deep learning models for NLP under a unified framework. NLP problems are systematically organised by their machine learning nature, including classification, sequence labelling, and sequence-to-sequence problems. Topics covered include statistical machine learning and deep learning models, text classification and structured prediction models, generative and discriminative models, supervised and unsupervised learning with latent variables, neural networks, and transition-based methods. Rich connections are drawn between concepts throughout the book, equipping students with the tools needed to establish a deep understanding of NLP solutions, adapt existing models, and confidently develop innovative models of their own. Featuring a host of examples, intuition, and end of chapter exercises, plus sample code available as an online resource, this textbook is an invaluable tool for the upper undergraduate and graduate student.
Written by eminent international judges, scholars and practitioners, this book offers a timely study of China's role in international dispute resolution in the context of the construction of the 'Belt and Road Initiative' (BRI). It provides in-depth analysis of the law and practice in the fields of international trade, commerce, investment and international law of the sea, as they relate to the BRI construction. It is the first comprehensive assessment of China's policy and practice in international dispute resolution, in general and in individual fields, in the context of the BRI construction. This book will be an indispensable reading for scholars and practitioners with interest in China and international dispute resolution. It also constitutes an invaluable reference for anyone interested in the changing international law and order, in which China is playing an increasingly significant role, particularly through the BRI construction.
The gastrointestinal (GI) system comprises a muscular tube starting from the mouth and ending at the anus, with a lining epithelium that ranges from squamous to columnar epithelium, and accessory organs that include the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The muscular tube consists of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anal canal.
Understand the theoretical principles, key technologies and applications of UDNs with this authoritative survey. Theory is explained in a clear, step-by-step manner, and recent advances and open research challenges in UDN physical layer design, resource allocation and network management are described, with examples, in the context of B5G and 6G standardization. Topics covered include NOMA-based physical layer design, physical layer security. Interference management, 3D base station deployment, software defined UDNs, wireless edge caching in UDNs, UDN-based UAVs and field trials and tests. A perfect resource for graduate students, researchers and professionals who need to get up to speed on the state of the art and future opportunities in UDNs.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increase. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, how identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail optimizes processes, prevents cross-infection, health protection and disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provide practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period.
Selenium (Se), an essential biological trace element, is required for fish growth. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Protein deposition in muscle is an important determinant for fish growth. This study was conducted on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to explore the nutritional effects of Se on protein deposition in fish muscle by analyzing the postprandial dynamics of both protein synthesis and protein degradation. Trout were fed a basal diet supplemented with or without 4 mg/kg Se (as selenium yeast), which has been previously demonstrated as the optimal supplemental level for rainbow trout growth. After 6 weeks of feeding, dietary Se supplementation exerted no influence on fish feed intake, whereas it increased fish growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention rate and muscle protein content. Results of postprandial dynamics (within 24 h after feeding) of protein synthesis and degradation in trout muscle showed that dietary Se supplementation led to a persistently hyperactivated target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, and the suppressive expression of numerous genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome system after the feeding. However, the ubiquitinated proteins and microtubule-associated light chain 3B (LC3)-II/LC3-I ratio, biomarkers for ubiquitination and autophagy activities, respectively, exhibited no significant differences among the fish fed different experimental diets throughout the whole postprandial period. Overall, this study demonstrated a promoting effect of nutritional level of dietary Se on protein deposition in fish muscle by accelerating postprandial protein synthesis. These results provide important insights about the regulatory role of dietary Se in fish growth.
The effect of coffee consumption on functional disability has been scarcely investigated. Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between coffee consumption and functional disability in older American adults. Participants (≥ 60 years old, N = 7,704) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2016. Coffee consumption was assessed through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Five domains of functional disability including lower-extremity mobility (LEM), general physical activity (GPA), leisure and social activities (LSA), activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were self-reported. Aged and multivariate adjusted logistic regression models and restricted cubic splines analyses were used. Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with LEM, GPA, LSA, and IADL disability. Compared with non-drinkers of total coffee, those who consumed ≥2 cups/day total coffee had lower odds of reporting disability of LEM (OR:0.67, 95%CI: 0.50-0.91), GPA (OR:0.65, 95%CI: 0.47-0.88), LSA (OR:0.61, 95%CI: 0.45-0.83) and IADL (OR:0.59, 95%CI: 0.44-0.78). These relationships were confirmed by the dose-response analyses. Intake of ≥2 cups/day caffeinated coffee was also inversely linked to the disability of GPA (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.48-0.92), LSA (OR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.93) and IADL (OR: 0.57, 95%CI:0.43-0.75,). While the inverse association of 2+ cups/day decaffeinated coffee was only on LEM (OR:0.43, 95%CI:0.23-0.81) and LSA (OR:0.39, 95%CI:0.16-0.94) disability. The present study suggested that coffee consumption was inversely associated with functional disability in older American adults. Those associations of diverse coffee types differed across domains of functional disability. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
This study introduces a new real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning method which is suitable for baselines of different lengths. The method merges carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free observation combinations (LWLC) instead of using pseudo-range, and carrier-phase ionosphere-free combination (PCLC), or single-frequency pseudo-range and phase combination (P1L1). In a first step, the double-differenced wide-lane ambiguities were calculated and fixed using the pseudo-range and carrier-phase wide-lane combination observations. Once the double-differenced wide-lane integer ambiguities were known, the wide-lane combined observations were regarded as accurate pseudo-range observations. Subsequently, the carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free combined observations were used to fix the double-differenced carrier-phase integer ambiguities, achieving the final RTK positioning. The RTK positioning analysis was performed for short, medium, and long baselines, using the P1L1, PCLC, and LWLC methods, respectively. For a short baseline, the LWLC method demonstrated positioning accuracy similar to the P1L1 method, and performed better than the PCLC method. For medium and long baselines, the positioning accuracy of the LWLC method was slightly higher than those of the PCLC and P1L1 methods. In conclusion, the LWLC method provided high-precision RTK positioning results for baselines with different lengths, as it used high-precision carrier-phase observations with fixed ambiguities instead of low-precision pseudo-range observations.
The age-adjusted rate of suicide death in the USA has increased significantly since 2000 and little is known about national trends in non-fatal suicidal behaviors (ideation, plan, and attempt) among adults and their associated sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. This study examined trends in non-fatal suicidal behaviors among adults in the USA.
Data were obtained from adults 18–65 years of age who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), including mental health assessment, from 2009 to 2017 (n = 335 359). Examinations of data involved trend analysis methods with the use of logistic regressions and interaction terms.
Suicidal ideation showed fluctuation from 2009 to 2017, whereas suicide plan and attempt showed significantly positive linear trends with the odds increasing by an average of 3% and 4%, respectively. Suicide plan increased the most for females and adults ages 18–34, and attempt increased the most for adults with drug dependence. Both plan and attempt increased the most among adults who either had mental illness but were not in treatment or had no mental illness.
Given attempted suicide is the strongest known risk factor for suicide death, reducing non-fatal suicidal behaviors including attempt are important public health and clinical goals. The interactional findings of age, sex, mental health status, and drug dependence point toward the importance of tailoring prevention efforts to various sociodemographic and clinical factors.
Using a legal standard for scrutinising the regulation of food label claims, this study assessed whether consumers are misled about wholegrain (WG) content and product healthfulness based on common product labels.
First, a discrete choice experiment used pairs of hypothetical products with different amounts of WG, sugar and salt to measure effects on assessment of healthfulness; and second, a WG content comprehension assessment used actual product labels to assess respondent understanding.
Online national panel survey.
For a representative sample of US adults (n 1030), survey responses were collected in 2018 and analysed in 2019.
First, 29–47 % of respondents incorrectly identified the healthier product from paired options, and respondents who self-identified as having difficulty in understanding labels were more likely to err. Second, for actual products composed primarily of refined grains, 43–51 % of respondents overstated the WG content, whereas for one product composed primarily of WG, 17 % of respondents understated the WG content.
The frequency of consumer misunderstanding of grain product labels was high in both study components. Potential policies to address consumer confusion include requiring disclosure of WG content as a percentage of total grain content or requiring disclosure of the grams of WG v. refined grains per serving.
We study the existence of entropy solutions by assuming the right-hand side function f to be an integrable function for some elliptic nonlocal p-Laplacian type problems. Moreover, the existence of weak solutions for the corresponding parabolic cases is also established. The main aim of this paper is to provide some positive answers for the two questions proposed by Chipot and de Oliveira (Math. Ann., 2019, 375, 283-306).
Drawing on a 2010 analysis of the reform and costs of adult social care commissioned by Downing Street and the UK Department of Health, this paper sets out projected future costs under different reform scenarios, reviews what happened in practice from 2010-19, explores the impact of the growing gap between need and funding, and explores the relationship between future spending and economic growth. In the process, it identifies a ‘lost decade’ in which policy makers failed to act on the warnings which they received in 2010, draws attention to the disproportionate impact of cuts on older people (compared to services for people of working age) and calls for urgent action before the current system becomes unsustainable.
Adolescence is an important phase of development during which youth experience dramatic neurobiological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. Decades of research have demonstrated gender similarities and differences during adolescence. This chapter takes both a gender perspective and a sociocultural perspective to understand adolescent development. For each of the following seven areas of adolescent development, we summarize latest research findings on gender similarities and differences in diverse cultures (e.g., North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia). We then particularly focus on singleton adolescent girls’ and boys’ development under the One-Child Policy in China as a case in point of sociocultural influences on gendered development during adolescence. Future directions of both theoretical and methodological concerns are discussed.
Prior analyses have repeatedly documented the association between individual health behaviours and health outcomes. Nonetheless, few studies have taken a health lifestyle theory approach to examine how health lifestyle behaviours have shaped Chinese older adults’ health status. Using the most recent 2011–2012 data released by the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), latent class analysis was applied to identify predominant health lifestyles among Chinese older adults aged 65–105. Four distinct classes representing health lifestyles emerged. Furthermore, the research found the way in which the four classes representing older adults’ health lifestyles can be predicted by the respondent's demographic and socio-economic characteristics. In addition, health lifestyles were found to be strongly associated with Chinese older adults’ health outcomes which were measured by self-rated health, functional independence, cognitive function and chronic diseases, even after controlling for demographic features as well as individual and parental socio-economic disadvantage. Findings supported the cumulative disadvantage theory in health. The research highlighted the importance of promoting health lifestyles to improve older adults’ health outcomes.
Poverty and social exclusion are a gendered phenomenon. They are rooted deeply in the stereotypes, biases, prejudices, and discriminations against women, especially those suffering from poor living conditions. Unfortunately, gender inequality is manifested in most, if not all, major life domains. It is therefore important to understand the gender aspect of poverty and social exclusion through a psychological lens. We begin this chapter by introducing the concepts of multi-dimensional poverty and social exclusion with a sketch of the gender disparities displayed in these areas. We turn next to several mainstream psychological theories which have attempted to investigate and interpret the relationship between poverty and gender inequality from the dispositional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioural perspectives. Finally, we evaluate the reliability, objectivity, and generalisability of the reviewed theories and studies and offer suggestions for future research.
In order to expand the family and improve the bioactivity of oral implant ceramics, the phase structures, mechanical and wetting properties of the hot-pressed yttria-zirconia/multilayer graphene oxide composite (3Y-ZrO2/GO) ceramics were investigated. GO was uniformly distributed in 3Y-ZrO2 powders, forming the C–O–Zr bond during the sintering process. In comparison to raw 3Y-ZrO2 ceramics, the flexural strength and fracture toughness improved up to 200% (1489.96 ± 35.71 MPa) in ZG3 (with 0.15 wt% GO) and 40.9% (8.95 ± 0.59 MPa m1/2) in ZG2 (with 0.1 wt% GO), respectively, while the relative density and Vickers hardness increased slightly. The toughening mechanisms included crack deflection, crack bridging, and GO put-out. Meanwhile, the composite ceramics were transformed into a more hydrophilic direction and indicated a good wetting property. In consideration of mechanical and wetting properties, the ZG3 would be a favorable alternative to the yttria-zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP) in dental implant applications. The results are expected to serve as a technical guidance for the fabrication and evaluation of dental implants.
To establish a structural equation model for exploring the direct and indirect relationships of depressive symptoms and their associated factors among the Chinese elderly population.
A cross-sectional research. The 2015 data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were adopted.
CHARLS is an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the social, economic, and health status of nationally representative samples of middle-aged and elderly Chinese residents.
A total of 5791 participants aged 60 years and above were included.
Depressive symptoms were used as the study outcome. Sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were used as predictors. Confirmatory factor analysis was first conducted to test the latent variables. Structural equation model was then utilized to examine the associations among latent variables and depressive symptoms.
The mean age of the participants was 68.82 ± 6.86 years, with 55.53% being males. The total prevalence of depressive symptoms was 37.52%. The model paths indicated that sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were directly associated with depressive symptoms, and the effects were 0.281, 0.509, −0.067, and −0.162, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were indirectly associated with depressive symptoms, mediating by poor health status. Their effects on poor health status were −0.093, 0.180, and −0.279, respectively. All paths of the model were significant (P < 0.001). The model could explain 40.9% of the variance in the depressive symptoms of the Chinese elderly population.
Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration among Chinese elderly population. The dominant predictor of depressive symptoms was poor health status. Targeting these results might be helpful in rationally allocating health resources during screening or other mental health promotion activities for the elderly.