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On December 5, 2017, the Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers (Committee) issued an interim resolution concerning the European Court of Human Rights case of Ilgar Mammadov v. Azerbaijan. In this resolution, the Committee, for the first time ever, launched infringement proceedings against a member state of the European Convention of Human Rights (Convention).
Laser and oven annealing effects on hydrogen concentration, hydrogen diffusion and material microstructure in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films deposited on crystalline silicon substrates are compared. For laser annealing, a 6 W green (532 nm) continuous wave laser with 100 µm focus diameter was applied and samples of about 1 cm2 were scanned in ambient with a line distance of 50 µm and at a speed of 1 – 100 mm/s. Hydrogen content and microstructure were measured by infrared spectroscopy, and hydrogen diffusion was investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements of depth profiles of deuterium and hydrogen in layered structures of deuterated and hydrogenated material. The results show that in both annealing experiments hydrogen diffuses predominantly in form of atoms although some formation of H2 molecules cannot be excluded. By comparison of laser and oven treatment, an effective temperature describing the laser treated state can be defined. Furthermore, the temperature of the thin silicon film during laser treatment is estimated.
We develop the technique of ionization parameter mapping (IPM) to probe the optical depth of Hii regions, applying our method to the Magellanic Clouds. Our results dramatically clarify the radiative transfer in these galaxies. Based on Sii, Oiii, and Hα imaging from the Magellanic Clouds Emission Line Survey, we find that the frequency of optically thin objects correlates strongly with Hα luminosity and correlates inversely with Hi column density. The aggregate escape fraction for the Lyman continuum is sufficient to ionize the diffuse, warm ionized medium, but the galactic escape fraction is dominated by the few largest Hii regions. The quantitative trends are similar in both the LMC and SMC in spite of their different star formation and Hi properties.
Indium has attracted much attention as a beneficial addition to cobalt–antimony-based skutterudites as a result of good thermoelectric performance. In this study, as-cast InxCo4Sb12 with x = 0.05, 0.2 were examined using x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. For x = 0.2 we found, besides the skutterudite main phase, nanometer-sized regions of secondary phases distributed along the grain boundaries, which exhibit substructures. As-cast material with x = 0.05 does not show visible precipitates. We further observed that changing one of the heat treatment parameters of In0.2Co4Sb12 has a major effect on the microstructure and shape of the precipitates, but minor influence on the skutterudite matrix composition. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis by transmission electron microscopy) reveals that indium is to a large extent distributed into the skutterudite structure. Measurements of short-term sintered material confirm that the addition of indium and particularly the modification of the synthesis parameter entails to an enhanced ZT.
Anorexia nervosa (AN), at the stage of starvation and emaciation, is characterized by abnormalities in cognitive function, including memory performance. It is unclear whether memory impairment persists or is reversible following weight restoration, and whether memory function differs between AN subtypes. The aim of the present study was to investigate general memory performance in currently ill and fully weight-restored patients of different AN subtypes.
Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) in a total of 99 participants, including 34 restricting-type AN patients (AN-RESTR), 19 binge-eating/purging-type AN patients (AN-PURGE), 16 weight-restored AN patients (AN-W-R) and 30 healthy controls (CONTROL). Cognitive evaluation included a battery of standardized neuropsychological tasks for validating the findings on memory function.
Deficits were found with respect to immediate and delayed story recall in currently ill AN patients irrespective of AN subtype. These deficits persisted in weight-restored AN patients. Currently ill and weight-restored AN patients did not differ significantly from healthy controls with respect to working memory or other measures of neuropsychological functioning.
The findings suggest that impaired memory performance is either a stable trait characteristic or a scar effect of chronic starvation that may play a role in the development and/or persistence of the disorder.
Hydrogen diffusion in zinc oxide thin films was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, investigating the spreading of implanted deuterium profiles by annealing. By effusion measurements of implanted rare gases He and Ne the microstructure of the material was characterized. While for material prepared by low pressure chemical vapour deposition an interconnected void structure and a predominant diffusion of molecular hydrogen was found, sputter-deposited ZnO films showed a more compact structure and long range diffusion of atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen diffusion energies of 1.8 – 2 eV, i.e. higher than reported in literature were found. The results are discussed in terms of a H diffusion model analogous to the model applied for hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon.
For SiCl4-based microcrystalline silicon films the doping dependence of chlorine and hydrogen incorporation was studied. The results reveal a Fermi level dependence with a maximum chlorine (and hydrogen) incorporation for a Fermi level somewhat above midgap. As an explanation, a Fermi level dependence of the chlorine release rate during film growth is considered, similar as valid for hydrogen diffusion and desorption.
Structural and electronic properties of SiCl4-based microcrystalline silicon films were studied. A rather dense (non-porous) material structure is obtained near the transition to amorphous material, in particular at substrate temperatures of 250°C and above. Boron doping results in very high conductivity values while for phosphorus doping only lower values are reached. This latter effect is attributed to a different microstructure with lower crystalline fraction, higher hydrogen and chlorine content and increased porosity in highly phosphorus- doped material.
The concentration profiles of B, P, Zn, and O in the active intrinsic (i) νc-Si:H layer and across the interfaces in p-i-n and n-i-p structures have been measured with SIMS. For the ZnO/νc-p/νc-i sequences, an apparent B and O profile extends over several hundred nanometers into the i-layer, and high levels of Zn can be found well above the ZnO substrate layer. These profiles are not affected by annealing at the deposition temperature. Much lower impurity concentrations are measured for n-i-p deposition sequences, or when the p-layer or the i-layer is amorphous. Ruling out diffusion and intermixing processes, evidence for the presence of pinholes in the material is presented, which explain most of the experimental findings.
For three types of hydrogenated silicon films, amorphous, microcrystalline and crystalline hydrogenated silicon, hydrogen diffusion was studied as a function of doping level employing depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hydrogen implantation was used to control the hydrogen concentration. All three materials show a similar doping dependence of H diffusion, namely a strong increase upon boron (p-type) doping and a much lesser increase for n- type (P, As) doping. In a band model of H diffusion, the effect is related to a decrease in energy of the hydrogen diffusion path. Possible explanations are a different charge state of diffusing hydrogen or an effect of the Fermi energy on the release energy of neutral hydrogen.
The existence of a group H as described in the title shows that the statement of Rips's Theorem for finitely generated groups cannot be extended without further complications to infinitely generated groups. The construction as given in this paper uses a careful combinatorial description of the fundamental group of the Hawaiian Earrings and a length function that can be put on a special subgroup. Then the existence of H follows using a theorem of Chiswell, Alperin and Moss.
The concentration dependence of hydrogen diffusion was studied in hydrogenated crystalline and amorphous silicon prepared by hydrogen implantation into crystalline Si wafers and into amorphous silicon of low hydrogen concentration. The results are compared with data for plasma-grown a-Si:H and µc-Si:H films. The increase of the diffusion coefficient with rising hydrogen concentration in a-Si:H is explained by an (equilibrium) energy band model of hydrogen diffusion whereas the decrease of the diffusion coefficient in c-Si:H is explained by a trapping model. The different behavior is attributed to a greater flexibility of the amorphous Si network compared to the crystalline Si lattice which is also visible in a difference in hydrogen-related microstructure formation.
The diffusion and effusion of hydrogen in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon films deposited in an electron cyclotron resonance reactor were studied for various deposition temperatures Ts. For deposition temperatures below 250°C, hydrogen effusion is found to be dominated by desorption of hydrogen from internal surfaces followed by rapid out-diffusion of H2. Higher substrate temperatures result in an increased hydrogen stability suggesting the growth of a more compact material. For this latter type of samples, a hydrogen diffusion coefficient similar as in compact plasma-grown a-Si:H films is found despite a different predominant bonding of hydrogen according to infrared absorption.
Hall-effect experiments on <n>-type microcrystalline silicon samples with a wide range of structural composition and doping have been performed. For highly doped samples the conductivity Σ and the mobility μ show a non-singly activated behaviour while the carrier density is almost temperature independent. The comparison of the carrier density with the phosphorous concentration in conjunction with the conductivity gives strong evidence that the Hall-effect data have to be corrected with the crystalline volume fraction Xc. Furthermore, the increase of the mobility with Xc, which is linked in our case to the grain size, can be explained when the length of the transport paths is taken into account. Our results will be discussed in the framework of different transport models. It is concluded that transport in μc-Si:H can not be explained in terms of thermionic emission over barriers with a well defined barrier height; instead a distribution of barrier heights have to be considered. A transport model is suggested where μc-Si:H is viewed as an interconnected network.
Incorporation and kinetics of hydrogen during plasma post-hydrogenation and thermal treatment are discussed for a-Si:H and a-Ge:H films. For material of low hydrogen content, the hydrogen surface concentration reached by plasma treatment equals the hydrogen concentration obtained by deposition at the same temperature and under similar plasma conditions. Enhancements of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient and of hydrogen solubility observed for plasma treatment at temperatures ≤400°C and ≤300°C for a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, respectively, are attributed to a plasma induced rise of the surface hydrogen chemical potential.
Diffusion processes of hydrogen and lithium in amorphous silicon are compared. While similarities in the diffusion energies and in a doping dependence exist, the charge state of the diffusing particles and the type of bonding of diffusing particles in traps differ. In case of Li diffusion, oxygen contamination plays an important role.
SIMS measurements of implanted Li in (doped and undoped) a-Si:H, a-Si and a-Si:H alloys are discussed. The results suggest basically the same Li diffusion process in p- and n-type a-Si:H with negatively charged acceptors or dangling bonds acting as traps for the positively charged diffusing Li ions. Li is less stable in a-Si than in a-Si:H; Li stability in a-Si:H is enhanced at high concentrations of implanted Li. Both diffusion and stability are modified by doping gradient-related electric fields.
The thermal stability of hydrogen in amorphous silicon-based alloy films was studied by deuterium/hydrogen interdiffusion and hydrogen effusion experiments. Depending on the film structure, hydrogen stability is limited by hydrogen surface desorption or hydrogen diffusion. The hydrogen surface desorption energy is found to decrease with rising germanium content and to increase with rising nitrogen and carbon content. At T = 400°C, hydrogen diffusion is found to proceed in the germanium subnetwork for a-SiGe alloys and in the silicon subnetwork for a-SiN and a-SiC alloys.
The thermal stability of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous germanium films was studied by hydrogen evolution and by deuterium and hydrogen inter-diffusion experiments. Similar to a-Si:H, the hydrogen stability in a-Ge:H is found to depend strongly on the film structure and on the position of the Fermi level.
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